Why use smart materials? Since most smart materials do not add mass, engineers can endow structures with built-in responses to a myriad of contingencies. In their various forms, these materials can adapt to their environments by changing characteristics and can provide information about structural and environmental changes. A single source on numerous aspects of intelligent materials Smart Materials focuses on many types of novel materials, including ceramics, hybrid composites, shape memory alloys, chitosan-based gels, adhesives, oxides, polymers, flip-chip technology, magnetorheological fluids, electrorheological materials, nanotubes, and sensors. It highlights the interdisciplinary nature of these materials by showing how they can be used in scores of areas, such as drug delivery systems, health monitoring, fiber optics, nanoscale engineering, vibration control, and molecular imprinting.
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USDA Crop Fiber Research Collection
Containing 50, reference cards, thousands of reprints, manuscript materials, photographs, and specimens, the collection is particularly vital to research interests and projects involving the use of natural fibers.
The collection spans the years to with the bulk of the collection dating from to It occupies boxes and linear feet of shelf space.
Materials are in good condition. The collection was partially re-housed and arranged by Connie Maas and Karen Sichelman from to Labels and titles on the items in this collection sometimes contain alternate spellings or typographical errors. Latin plant names were standardized in the finding aid to simplify keyword searching.
We have aimed to correct all typos please call our attention to any we missed. Some alternate English spellings of other words were kept in their original forms, especially those appearing in published titles. You may need to search more than one spelling for better results. For example:. He reported on his observations of European fiber plant culture, processing methods, and manufacture. Domestic fiber production was expected to save millions of dollars that the U.
The report gained international attention as an authoritative source of information on flax and hemp. The Office of Fiber Investigations also accumulated a large collection of domestic and international raw fiber samples.
The collection became a national resource for fiber study. Later, cooperative research was expanded to other parts of the United States, especially Michigan, Wisconsin, Oregon, California, Florida, and Maryland.
The Dewey Index grew to over 1, index cards containing references to thousands of indexed publications, reprints, and reports.
USDA ended its research on plant fibers other than cotton in Staff was reassigned, but a few interested scientists continued updating the fiber reference collections.
Elton Glen Nelson, a botanist, was a long-time curator. He maintained the fiber index from his retirement in until the late s. Many of the materials are rare or unique. The collection occupies linear feet of shelf space, and fills boxes. The materials were organized by early USDA fiber specialists. They served as reference tools used by staff in the Office of Fiber Plant Investigations.
These resources supplied information that could be distributed to growers or used to answer public inquiries about fiber plants around the world. References date from the turn of the 20th century until the s.
The collection is divided into two main groupings: materials produced by internal agencies of USDA, and those that came from outside publishers and other agencies. Externally published materials and reports from other agencies were collected primarily for reference and distribution purposes. These include:. Foreign Service. Collection materials originally occupied filing cabinets and book cases in the fiber investigations office.
Complex instructions for using the index and accompanying materials were prepared by more recent fiber experts. These instructions are preserved with the collection to illustrate how it was arranged and used by the fiber office staff.
The Dewey Index was originally created by Lyster H. Dewey and consists of a card index containing references to literature on fiber plants. The cards are arranged alphabetically by genus and species. Major species sections are further subdivided into topical areas, such as cultural aspects, fertilizer usage, crop yields, diseases, pests, fiber quality, processing methods, and geographical locations of the plant subject. Information indexed here includes literature on fiber history, planting information from Arlington Experimental Farm, transcribed letters, notes, documented conversations with visitors to the Fiber Office, consular reports, bibliographic records, and abstracts.
In some cases, the document described on a card is contained in a small envelope attached to the back of the card. These cards consist of brief, type-written statements or references to materials filed in the Office of Fiber Investigations. Please note that the correspondence files were discarded by the Office of Fiber Investigations in the late s and are thus not available for research.
Cards are filed alphabetically by genus and species. Work was discontinued on this index in This subseries contains an alphabetical cross-reference index of common and scientific fiber plant names. It includes common names in English and other languages, usually those native to the regions in which plants are grown.
Scientific names are identified by genus and species. This index was updated until the early s. Fiber Specimen Samples. This set of cards documents fiber plant introduction PI numbers. The cards are arranged in alphabetical order by scientific name of plant. A majority of the cards are Division of Plant Exploration and Introduction request forms for seed and plant samples.
These forms were used by Office of Fiber Investigations employees to request seed and plant samples for experiment stations or other persons conducting fiber research. Some forms contain permits with plant introduction numbers and inspection stamps.
This card index consists of handwritten and typed abstracted notes and references to literature on fiber diseases. This card index contains references to literature on principal fiber plants. Topics covered include any of the following: botany, breeding, costs, cultural operations, diseases, distribution, exports, fertilizers, grading, harvesting, imports, labor, prices, production, propagation, rehabilitation, research, soil and climate, users, varieties, waste, and yield.
The following subseries were organized as distinct collections by the employees of the Office of Fiber Investigations. Each collection has an abbreviated code which appeared on index cards in the Dewey Index Subseries I.
Materials relate to fiber production and usage proposals as well as unpublished reports on the following:. Accompanying the manuscripts is a set of index cards in alphabetical order by genus and species name. The cards have a number which correlates to a manuscript. This subseries consists of foreign and domestic publications, promotional brochures, reprints and reports, and materials similar to those in Subseries II.
Manuscript File, except that these are predominantly published materials. Materials consist of volumes, which are arranged and bound mostly by subject and year.
This group contains a variety of materials, both published and unpublished. Items include letters, press releases, memoranda, circulars, reprints, and trip reports. The fiber seeds are packaged in plastic bags and labeled with fiber plant name.
Most samples are of Kenaf. The textile samples that comprise this subseries were sent by Testfabrics, Inc. Series includes black and white negatives glass and film , black and white prints mounted on paste-board held in binders, loose black and white prints, and color transparencies of fiber crops and research activities. The photographs in this set, mounted on card stock with typewritten descriptions, were considered by USDA fiber scientists to be the best representations of each fiber.
The prints were originally housed in post binders arranged by genus, species, and subject. Most photographs have a number that corresponds to a negative. Note that additional photographs are housed with the negatives; some are duplicates of mounted prints and others are unique. Negatives are housed in numbered and labeled envelopes. Occasionally, a print is enclosed with its negative in an envelope. Some of the negatives are filed out of sequence and follow the main set of negatives.
Albums in this subseries portray fiber plant production and processing both in Europe and the United States. This subseries includes two copies of the publication, one of which belonged to Elton G. This subseries consists of field station research reports.
Many, but not all, are annual reports. There are also research reports from cooperating agencies, such as the Office of Cereal Investigations, and private companies. The project files include surveys of potential cultivation areas, research reports, soil surveys, use surveys, and trip reports.
The files also contain Brittain B. Several of these reports include photographs, clippings, copies of letters, maps, and other literature bound with the reports. John Milton Webber was an associate cytologist and research agronomist. His yucca reports documented field trips; species, variations and distribution; estimated yields; propagation and growth; harvesting; fibers; and botanical problems.
These reports include photographs. Materials include correspondence, telephone list, reference requests, fiber crops class syllabus, list of publications, personal belongings, and miscellaneous materials.
Most of the letters are signed Elton G. Nelson and a few are signed by B. Includes handwritten research data on multiple types of fiber. The materials are organized according to a table of contents. At least half of the pages are numbered. News clippings grouped by subject include flax , sisal hemp , hemp, fibers , and miscellaneous fibers. Many of the earliest clippings related to Charles R. These consist of two sets of six bound volumes of fiber plant research papers or articles authored by employees of two divisions within the U.
Bast fibers are the fibrous part of the plant just below the bark. They are a family of fibers that allow for the entire plant to be used. These fibers are annually renewable crops that come off of the stalks rather than the leaves and grow in 90 to days. These low maintenance, high-quality fibers do not require chemicals or pesticides, they put nutrients back into the earth similar to nitrates, take up less space and water, and erosion is nonexistent. For these reasons, bast fibers are quickly becoming the millennial alternative for environmental responsibility.
Natural Fibers: Applications
Larry C. When it comes to composites, the fiber reinforces the plastic resin, and carries the majority of the load, while the plastic matrix holds it all together and transfers load from one fiber to another. Natural fibers are pretty strong and stiff, and if you look at their properties — they look pretty good compared to fiberglass, especially on a weight basis — it really has a lot of potential, except that people have not been able to translate these fiber properties into very good composite-material properties. This problem is directly related to the strength of the bond between the fiber and the matrix. And the problem is much worse after soaking in water. You always have the weak interface issue, and that weak interface issue is even worse once you get the fiber wet. But essentially we put some chemistry on the fiber and solve that moisture issue, while also enhancing the fiber-to-matrix bond strength.
Handbook of Ecomaterials pp Cite as. Increasing environmental awareness leads to further research and investigation for new eco-friendly materials. The need for green and renewable materials has never been as prevalent as it currently is and undoubtedly there is increasing interest in materials demonstrating efficient use of renewable resources. Due to the challenges of petroleum-based products and the need to find renewable solutions, more and more companies are looking at natural fiber composite materials. The primary driving forces for new natural-composite materials are the decreased cost of natural fibers, weight reduction, recycling, and the desire for green products.
They do not damage the ecosystem, they can grow in different climatic zones and they recycle the carbon dioxide for the atmosphere. These plants can contribute to a better agricultural balance in Europe and they will contribute to the growing demand from an expanding population for cellulosic pulp in the next millennium. Some of these green plants like flax and hemp can be used for cleaning soil, polluted by heavy metals, by extracting and removing cadmium, lead, copper and others. The estimated world-wide production of fibrous raw materials from agricultural crops is provided in Table 1. Other possible sources of straw, which could be used as raw materials for applications such as composites and as energy crops are given in Table 2. Table 1: Estimated global tonnage of fibrous raw materials from agricultural crops Crop Plant component Availability ' tonnes Cereals straw: barley straw There are two parallel textile fibre technologies: 2. Though difficult in handling, traditional long flax, ramie and hemp are still produced and processed by slightly modernised methods. These products include: percent linen or ramie knitted apparels.
A Short Guide About Jute: Uses/Products, Growing & More
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Fibers derived from bio-based sources such as vegetables and animal origin are termed as natural fibers. This definition includes all natural cellulosic fibers cotton, jute, sisal, coir, flax, hemp, abaca, ramie, etc. There are also man-made cellulose fibers e. Natural fibers being cost effective and abundantly available yields high potential in various industrial and commercial applications such as in the interior applications of the passenger cars, panels for partition and false ceiling, partition boards, roof tiles, coir fibers in packaging, furniture applications, as insulating materials in low energy houses, geo-textiles for soil protection and erosion control, enhancing barrier properties, composites etc. Due to research and developmental work in modification and treatment methods of natural fibers, utilization of natural fibers has observed a significant growth in various applications. The chapter addresses the potential applications of natural fibers in various commercial sectors for the development of environment-friendly products with an aim to replace synthetic fibers or inorganic fillers with cost-effective and efficient products. The transition toward a bio-based economy and sustainable developments as a consequence of the Kyoto protocols on greenhouse gas reduction and CO 2 neutral production offers high perspectives for natural fiber markets. Changing to a bio-based economy requires substitution of common raw materials that are currently largely produced from fossil petrochemical or mineral resources, by-products produced from renewable plant and animal based resources [ 1 ]. The development of a sustainable global economy, which permits improving purchasing power and living standards without exhaustion of resources for future generations, requires a fundamental change in attitude.
Natural Fiber Composites Slowly Take Root
Account Options Sign in. My library Help Advanced Book Search. Get print book. BoD — Books on Demand , M05 2 - pages. Nano- and micro-sized natural fibers of vegetable origin are fully biodegradable in nature. However, the nano- and micro-sized synthetic fibers are fully man-made.
Construction Materials Reinforced with Natural Products
At the start of , FlexForm Korea will commence manufacturing the full range of FlexForm products. The factories and production lines were acquired from the hardboard operations of companies that manufactured various composite materials for the automotive industry. Under FlexForm, they will be used for applications not only in the automotive industry but also in other industries as well, such as workspace panels, furniture and structural components. About FlexForm Products. FlexForm develops, manufactures and distributes environmentally friendly composite materials using customizable blends of sustainable natural fibers such as kenaf, jute and hemp and fiberized thermoplastic polymers to create materials that are moldable, strong, lightweight, shatter resistant, appealing in look and feel, noise reducing, recyclable and cost effective. FlexForm materials provide moldable substrates for numerous important applications, such as interior panels, load floors and underbody shields for cars and trucks, workspace panels and furnishings for offices and homes, containers for shipping and storage, structural support for agricultural seedlings, and many other applications. For automotive applications, FlexForm materials reduce vehicle weight and fuel consumption, and increase safety by their resistance to shattering on impact.
Containing 50, reference cards, thousands of reprints, manuscript materials, photographs, and specimens, the collection is particularly vital to research interests and projects involving the use of natural fibers. The collection spans the years to with the bulk of the collection dating from to It occupies boxes and linear feet of shelf space. Materials are in good condition.
Biodegradable Matrices and Composites View all 17 Articles. The increase in awareness of the damage caused by synthetic materials on the environment has led to the development of eco-friendly materials.
A biocomposite is a composite material formed by a matrix resin and a reinforcement of natural fibers . These kind of materials often mimic the structure of the living materials involved in the process keeping the strengthening properties of the matrix that was used, but always providing biocompatibility.
Единственный союзник был привязан к нему тончайшими узами собственных интересов и мог оставить его в любой момент. На спуске, ведущем к улице, их ждала Алистра.