Have you ever wanted to bake a loaf of rye bread, but felt too daunted to give it a try? These tips for making rye bread will leave you feeling dauntless in no time. Baking rye bread uses all the same basic techniques you'd use when baking a standard all-purpose flour loaf. You just need to manage your expectations: if you understand how rye flour dough acts — which is different than dough made with all-purpose or bread flour — you're more likely to be happy with your results. Whether you want to make nut-and-fruit studded pecan-raisin rye; a light, caraway-studded sandwich loaf; dense pumpernickel bread for hors d'oeuvres, or richly flavored sourdough rye, we have the recipes you need; and after reading this post and practicing with a few loaves, I guarantee rye bread will daunt you no longer!
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How to make the perfect rye breadVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: 100% Rye Sourdough Masterclass With Patrick Ryan
Flour is a powder made by grinding raw grains , roots , beans , nuts , or seeds. It is used to make many different foods. Cereal flour is the main ingredient of bread , which is a staple food for most cultures. Wheat flour is one of the most important ingredients in Oceanic , European , South American , North American , Middle Eastern , North Indian and North African cultures, and is the defining ingredient in their styles of breads and pastries. Wheat is the most common base for flour.
Corn flour has been important in Mesoamerican cuisine since ancient times and remains a staple in the Americas. Rye flour is a constituent of bread in central Europe. Cereal flour consists either of the endosperm , germ , and bran together whole-grain flour or of the endosperm alone refined flour.
Meal is either differentiable from flour as having slightly coarser particle size degree of comminution or is synonymous with flour; the word is used both ways. For example, the word cornmeal often connotes a grittier texture whereas corn flour connotes fine powder, although there is no codified dividing line. The English word "flour" is originally a variant of the word " flower " and both words derive from the Old French fleur or flour , which had the literal meaning "blossom", and a figurative meaning "the finest".
The phrase "fleur de farine" meant "the finest part of the meal", since flour resulted from the elimination of coarse and unwanted matter from the grain during milling. The earliest archaeological evidence for wheat seeds crushed between simple millstones to make flour dates to BC. In , at the beginning of the Industrial Era , the first steam mill was erected in London. In the s, mills started to enrich flour and folic acid was added to the list in the s.
An important problem of the industrial revolution was the preservation of flour. Transportation distances and a relatively slow distribution system collided with natural shelf life. The reason for the limited shelf life is the fatty acids of the germ , which react from the moment they are exposed to oxygen. This occurs when grain is milled; the fatty acids oxidize and flour starts to become rancid.
Depending on climate and grain quality, this process takes six to nine months. In the late 19th century, this process was too short for an industrial production and distribution cycle. As vitamins , micronutrients and amino acids were completely or relatively unknown in the late 19th century, removing the germ was an effective solution.
Without the germ, flour cannot become rancid. Degermed flour became standard. Degermation started in densely populated areas and took approximately one generation to reach the countryside.
Heat-processed flour is flour where the germ is first separated from the endosperm and bran, then processed with steam, dry heat or microwave and blended into flour again. The FDA has been advised by several cookie dough manufacturers that they have implemented the use of heat-treated flour for their "ready-to-bake cookie dough" products to reduce the risk of E.
Milling of flour is accomplished by grinding grain between stones or steel wheels. Roller mills soon replaced stone grist mills as the production of flour has historically driven technological development, as attempts to make gristmills more productive and less labor-intensive led to the watermill  and windmill. These terms are now applied more broadly to uses of water and wind power for purposes other than milling.
Home users have begun grinding their own flour from organic wheat berries on a variety of electric flour mills. The grinding process is not much different from grinding coffee but the mills are larger.
This provides fresh flour with the benefits of wheat germ and fiber without spoilage. Modern farm equipment allows livestock farmers to do some or all of their own milling when it comes time to convert their own grain crops to coarse meal for livestock feed.
This capability is economically important because the profit margins are often thin enough in commercial farming that saving expenses is vital to staying in business. Flour contains a high proportion of starches , which are a subset of complex carbohydrates also known as polysaccharides.
The kinds of flour used in cooking include all-purpose flour known as plain outside North America , self-rising flour known as self-raising outside North America , and cake flour including bleached flour. The higher the protein content the harder and stronger the flour, and the more it will produce crusty or chewy breads.
The lower the protein the softer the flour, which is better for cakes, cookies, and pie crusts. Bleached flour is artificially aged using a bleaching agent, a maturing agent, or both. A bleaching agent would affect only the carotenoids in the flour; a maturing agent affects gluten development.
A maturing agent may either strengthen or weaken gluten development. Some other chemicals used as flour treatment agents to modify color and baking properties include:. Cake flour in particular is nearly always chlorinated. At least one flour labeled "unbleached cake flour blend" marketed by King Arthur Flour is not bleached, but the protein content is much higher than typical cake flour at about 9. According to King Arthur, this flour is a blend of a more finely milled unbleached wheat flour and cornstarch, which makes a better end result than unbleached wheat flour alone cornstarch blended with all-purpose flour is commonly substituted for cake flour when the latter is unavailable.
The end product, however, is denser than would result from lower-protein, chlorinated cake flour. All bleaching and maturing agents with the possible exception of ascorbic acid have been banned in the United Kingdom. Bromination of flour in the US has fallen out of favor, and while it is not yet actually banned anywhere, few retail flours available to the home baker are bromated anymore. Many varieties of flour packaged specifically for commercial bakeries are still bromated. Retail bleached flour marketed to the home baker is now treated mostly with either peroxidation or chlorine gas.
Current information from Pillsbury is that their varieties of bleached flour are treated both with benzoyl peroxide and chlorine gas. Gold Medal states that their bleached flour is treated either with benzoyl peroxide or chlorine gas, but no way exists to tell which process has been used when buying the flour at the grocery store. During the process of making flour nutrients are lost. Some of these nutrients may be replaced during refining — the result is enriched flour. Pastry flour has the second-lowest gluten protein content, with 7.
All-purpose, or "AP flour", or plain flour is medium in gluten protein content at 9. It has adequate protein content for many bread and pizza bases, though bread flour and special 00 grade Italian flour are often preferred for these purposes, respectively, especially by artisan bakers. Some biscuits are also prepared using this type of flour. Bread flour, or strong flour is high in gluten protein, with The increased protein binds to the flour to entrap carbon dioxide released by the yeast fermentation process, resulting in a stronger rise and more chewy crumb.
Bread flour may be made with a hard spring wheat. Hard is a general term for flours with high gluten protein content, commonly refers to extra strong flour, with This flour may be used where a recipe adds ingredients that require the dough to be extra strong to hold together in their presence, or when strength is needed for constructions of bread e.
It is used to strengthen flour as needed. For example, adding approximately one teaspoon per cup of AP flour gives the resulting mix the protein content of bread flour. It is commonly added to whole grain flour recipes to overcome the tendency of greater fiber content to interfere with gluten development, needed to give the bread better rising gas holding qualities and chew. Unbleached flour is simply flour that has not undergone bleaching and therefore does not have the color of "white" flour.
An example is Graham flour , whose namesake, Sylvester Graham , was against using bleaching agents, which he considered unhealthy. Leavening agents are used with some varieties of flour,  especially those with significant gluten content, to produce lighter and softer baked products by embedding small gas bubbles.
Self-raising or self-rising flour is sold mixed with chemical leavening agents. The added ingredients are evenly distributed throughout the flour, which aids a consistent rise in baked goods. This flour is generally used for preparing sponge cakes, scones, muffins, etc. It was invented by Henry Jones and patented in Plain flour can be used to make a type of self-raising flour, although the flour will be coarser.
Self-raising flour is typically composed of or can be made from :. Wheat is the grain most commonly used to make flour. Flours contain differing levels of the protein gluten. When flours do not contain gluten, they are suitable for people with gluten-related disorders , such as coeliac disease , non-celiac gluten sensitivity or wheat allergy sufferers, among others. Flour also can be made from soybeans , arrowroot , taro , cattails , acorns , manioc , quinoa , and other non-cereal foodstuffs.
This is an easily verified indicator for the fraction of the whole grain remains in the flour, because the mineral content of the starchy endosperm is much lower than that of the outer parts of the grain. In the United States and the United Kingdom, no numbered standardized flour types are defined, and the ash mass is only rarely given on the label by flour manufacturers. However, the legally required standard nutrition label specifies the protein content of the flour, which is also a way for comparing the extraction rates of different available flour types.
In general, as the extraction rate of the flour increases, so do both the protein and the ash content. The following table shows some typical examples of how protein and ash content relate to each other in wheat flour:.
This table is only a rough guideline for converting bread recipes. Since flour types are not standardized in many countries, the numbers may differ between manufacturers.
There is no French type corresponding to the lowest ash residue in the table. The closest is French Type Also there is no Chinese name corresponding to the highest ash residue in the table. It is possible to determine ash content from some US manufacturers.
Thus, a US flour with 0. Other measurable properties of flour as used in baking can be determined using a variety of specialized instruments, such as the farinograph.
Flour dust suspended in air is explosive —as is any mixture of a finely powdered flammable substance with air  see dust explosion. Some devastating explosions have occurred at flour mills, including an explosion in at the Washburn "A" Mill in Minneapolis which killed 22 people. Bread, pasta, crackers , many cakes, and many other foods are made using flour. Wheat flour is also used to make a roux as a base for thickening gravy and sauces. Cornstarch is a principal ingredient used to thicken many puddings or desserts, and is the main ingredient in packaged custard.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
She has been a college professor and a registered dietitian with the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics since Brown currently teaches at the University of Hawaii's John A. Her research interests are in the area of bioactive plant substances beneficial to health and medical nutrition therapy. Some of the studies she has conducted include "Diet and Crohn's disease," "Potentially harmful herbal supplements," "Kava beverage consumption and the effect on liver function tests," and "The effectiveness of kukui nut oil in treating psoriasis. Understanding Food: Principles and Preparation.
Three-cereal bread mix
Flour is a basic ingredient in all bread making. Wheat flour is the most common flour used in bread making. When your yeast dough is kneaded, the gluten forms a structured network that is responsible for capturing the gases produced by the yeast, allowing the dough to stretch and expand during rising. Choosing the correct flour is important for making good bread. There are two basic types of wheat grown in North America, hard and soft. Hard wheat has a higher level of protein, making it the wheat of choice for most yeast doughs.
Flour Power: Your Definitive Guide to Baking With White, Wheat, and More
Flour is a powder made by grinding raw grains , roots , beans , nuts , or seeds. It is used to make many different foods. Cereal flour is the main ingredient of bread , which is a staple food for most cultures. Wheat flour is one of the most important ingredients in Oceanic , European , South American , North American , Middle Eastern , North Indian and North African cultures, and is the defining ingredient in their styles of breads and pastries. Wheat is the most common base for flour. Corn flour has been important in Mesoamerican cuisine since ancient times and remains a staple in the Americas.
Wheat, whole-wheat, bleached, gluten-free…when it comes to baking with flour, there are more choices than ever. It's a big, scary world in the field of flour, so we spoke to four experts: baker Alex Bois of Philadelphia's High Street on Market one of our Best New Restaurants! Tie on an apron—we're about to take a deep dive into the flour bin. Wheat's seed head the top of the plant is made from three portions: the germ, the bran, and the endosperm. White flour has been stripped of the bran and germ, leaving behind the fine, pale endosperm. It is more shelf-stable than whole wheat flour, but as a result, has a milder flavor and less nutritive qualities—the bulk of the fiber and protein are contained in the bran and germ. Whole wheat flour is made from grinding all three portions of the seed head.
Flour Power: Learn about Different Kinds of Flours
My bread baking journey started with the recipe on the back of the King Arthur whole wheat flour bag. After a time, I graduated to focaccia, pita, ciabatta, and other rustic breads. Sourdough, however, seemed like a bread on a different plane. I pored over information about sourdough starters but always felt overwhelmed.
I f December is a month of sweetly spiced, buttery breads, January seems to be the time for rye, with its bright, sharp flavour and darkly wholesome good looks. This hardy grass, which grows well at cool, damp latitudes, was once a more common material for bread-making on these islands than the more temperamental wheat. Elsewhere in Europe, it never fell from favour. One of the great pleasures of travelling in Scandinavia, Germany and points further east is the array of breads in various dark shades, often generously seeded or speckled with grains, laid out at breakfast. Signe Johansen uses equal parts rye and white bread flour in the Danish pumpernickel recipe in her book, Scandilicious Baking, while Dane Trine Hahnemann goes for a ratio of rye to wheat in Scandinavian Baking. Nigel Slater , meanwhile, balances his rye with wholemeal spelt, then adds a quarter as much white bread flour on top. The wheat makes a very visible difference. The all-rye variants have a noticeably tighter crumb and denser profile, but — importantly in my reckoning — taste more distinctly of rye. It also takes an absolute age to rise: Hollywood and Johansen advocate leaving the dough overnight, while Hahnemann and Leiths both recommend the use of a starter, made with buttermilk and yoghurt respectively, which Hahnemann leaves to sit for three days before adding to the remaining ingredients for yet another overnight rise. Indeed, I have a few disasters along the way notably one starter I manage to kill off before it even gets going. Sourdough rye is undoubtedly delicious, especially when paired with smoked or pickled fish, or a creamy butter or cheese, but it is also pretty tangy and, to my mind, a little too strong for everyday use.
The Best Flour for Baking Bread—and How to Use It
To avoid an endless bread making process, we have produced this practic three-cereal bread mix to make the process as easy as possible. Each flour has its specific role: wheat flour graham flour and semi-white flour gives the bread the volume and fibres, corn flour makes the bread delicious, and rye flour prolongues the bread freshness. Knead, bake and enjoy the taste - this trilogy always has a happy ending! Directions: Baking in the oven: Pour water into a mixer bowl with g of the mix and one packaging of instant yeast or 20 g of fresh yeast. Mix by hand or with electric mixer at middle speed until the dough is well blended.
2.8: Flour in Baking
Once upon a time, the typical American pantry included a single canister of flour. Today, supermarkets stock myriad milled options—reflecting increased consumer demand for diversity in the baking aisle. Whether exploring health trends, culinary interests or ethnic cuisines, here is some information your clients can use as they foray into the world of flours. Flour is the finely-ground, sifted meal of grains, nuts, seeds, legumes or certain vegetables—and each kind of flour has a different nutrition profile and cooking or baking qualities. Traditionally, the most prevalent flours are milled from wheat. Refined wheat flours are, by law, enriched with thiamin, riboflavin, niacin and iron, and fortified with folic acid.
How to Bake the Best Healthy Bread From Scratch
Wheat and rye flour. The wheat grain consists of three main parts: the endosperm, the bran, which is mostly wall tissue and the wheat's germ. The germ is rich in oil and it contains lots of vitamins. The endosperm is where the starch is stored.
Flour forms the foundation for bread, cakes, and pastries. It may be described as the skeleton, which supports the other ingredients in a baked product. This applies to both yeast and chemically leavened products.
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