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Client IndustriesVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Fur hats by Forestfox
I was among the group of inmates whom the Germans had left in the ghetto after the last deportation in August, We were to pack and ship the goods and equipment left behind by those Jews who had been deported. The papers that I found there, which had once been so meticulously sorted and filed, were in complete disarray. I stuffed them in large glass jars and later buried the jars in a remote spot. I also had another hiding place where I kept photographs, drawings and paintings made by ghetto artists.
I broke away from the group and ran inside. As a former employee of the ghetto post office, I knew the place well. Making my way through the silent corridors and empty rooms, I reached the back door and entered the adjoining house where the ghetto archives were located. Several suitcases bulging with documents stood on the floor covered with scattered papers. Evidently these materials were of special value and were meant to be taken to a safe place.
Not one minute could be wasted. I dragged the heavy valises down the stairs and into a deserted courtyard. In the middle of the courtyard I saw a well which turned out to be completely dry. With great difficulty, I brought the valises over to the well and dropped them in. I gathered the covers and pillows and stuffed them inside the well, hoping that this would keep the documents dry and protect from harm. Plunderers were already at work in the former ghetto, looking for treasures abandoned by the Jews.
Despite the threat they posed, I pulled the suitcases out of the well and carried them to my apartment. Later on, I dug up the glass jars. I was relieved when everything was finally secure. On many occasions I have been asked to explain why I took all these risks to secure these documents, whose contents I did not even know, in a place as desolate as the ghetto was then, and at a time when the rest of us inmates were looking for places to hide themselves rather than a batch of seemingly worthless papers.
Furthermore, what motivated me in the first moments of freedom to return to the abandoned streets of the former ghetto, now overrun with dangerous looters, in order to bring these moldy papers to safety? From my first days in the ghetto I was close to a small circle of people who strove to document for posterity all that was happening around us.
As the ghetto mailman, whose special task it was to deliver relief payments to welfare recipients, I used to come to the homes of poverty-stricken families.
I will never be able to describe the destitution, starvation, sickness, despair, injustice and loneliness which I saw there. Fortunately, there were others who have done it, such as the photographers Mendel Grossman and Henryk Rozencwajg-Ross, who preserved images of the ghetto on film. I was a close friend of both men and was intimately familiar with their work as well as that of their colleagues, Rubiczek and Borkowski.
I knew about the daily chronicle which was being meticulously compiled by scholars working in the Department of Statistics. I was involved with artists, writers and poets whose common goals was to preserve the evidence of the horrendous crime we were all witnessing, and I often participated in their discussions and meetings. Shortly before the liquidation of the ghetto I was able to hide some of their photographs and art works. I also made a mental note of the location of other materials to which I had no access at the time.
This, then, is my answer to the questions about my motives, which in those days were indeed anything but practical. This, too, should be the end of the story: as it happens there is an epilogue. I decided to turn some of the rescued documents over to this institution. We even worked out a plan for safely transporting the collection abroad, but, for various reasons, we had to postpone its realization.
In I left Poland and settled in Sweden. Then I transferred the collection to YIVO, where it was received with full appreciation of its priceless value and historical importance. The article cited a long list of crimes committed by me in the ghetto, including working for the Sonderkommando , organizing orgies and generally living well while others starved.
As for the documents, the author maintained that I found out where ghetto archivists had hidden them, and that I had simply stolen them after the war. I challenged the author several times to present supportive evidence for these allegations or to explain the reason for writing such an ignominious piece. Klugman chose not to respond at all. A week later, on September 18, the Nazis issued the first ordinance specifically concerning the Jews, banning all services in the city synagogues during the High Holy Days.
On September 21 Reinhard Heydrich, the chief of the Reich Security Main Office Reichsicherheithauptamt — SHA issued two orders to the Einsatzgruppen mobile units charged with establishing a police regime in the occupied territories regarding the Jews: that they were to be purged from the annexed territory of Western Poland and temporarily confined to special Jewish districts — the ghettos; and that councils of Jewish elders were to be established in the communities to carry out the orders of the occupation authorities regarding the Jews.
This legislation included: blocking Jewish bank accounts, a ban on travel, wearing the yellow patch displaying the JUDE sign in Jewish stores, forced labor, a ban on all pre-war Jewish organizations and institutions, the confiscation of Jewish property, a ban on the use of municipal transportation, the establishment of the ghetto and the forced resettlement of the entire Jewish population therein and, finally, a ban on contact with gentiles.
At the same time, terrorizing the Jews became a fact of daily life. Roundups on the streets and apprehension of people for forced labor did not stop even after Rumkowski reached an agreement with the Germans and organized a special department which delivered daily contingents of laborers. Assaults on Jews became particularly vicious during the time of resettlement to the ghetto February — April, Dissatisfied with the slow progress of this operation, the Nazis intensified roundups and arrests.
Those Jews who still remained in the city were ordered to vacate their apartments and were given five minutes to do so. Yet another plan regarding the Jews was being carried out by Nazis which paralleled the preparations for the ghetto. In November, , Heinrich Himmler issued a directive that the Jews of the Wartheland, now incorporated into the Reich, should be promptly deported to the General Government.
It seems that besides the difficulties in transporting the mass of deportees and organizing transit centers for them, the Nazis had already arrived at a different blueprint for the solution of the Jewish question. Local ghettos were to serve as points of concentration for the Jewish population until the method of their total annihilation was decided. On February 8 the establishment of the ghetto was ordered. In Announcement No. On April 30 Schaffer ordered the closing of the ghetto.
On May 1, the ghetto was sealed off from the outside world. It is also marked by an accelerated impoverishment of the ghetto population, organized confiscation of personal property and widespread starvation. In return, he was authorized to organize his own police, to confiscate and distribute all food and to enforce work without pay.
All ghetto contacts with the German authorities were to be maintained exclusively by Rumkowski or his deputy. The ghetto which Rumkowski took over was confined to an area of 4.
In this enclosed and tightly guarded place there lived , Jews according to a census taken on June 6, In the overcrowded dwellings there were an average of 3. Most of the ghetto inhabitants lost all or most of their property when they left their city homes in panic. The economy was nonexistent. The community welfare system, heavily burdened even before the creation of the ghetto, was in shambles. Rumkowski entered the ghetto with an ideology of survival, which entailed making the ghetto productive and thus useful to the Nazis, especially to the German war industry.
Later he would allude in his speeches to this plan as giving the Nazis a virtual gold mine - meaning thousands of cheap Jewish laborers. From these beginnings, an industrial complex developed in the ghetto with enterprises and 73, workers by the end of Meanwhile, a ruthless campaign to confiscate work tools and raw materials was conducted in order to open other workshops and force people to work in ghetto industries rather than on their own. In time, private enterprise in the ghetto was completely eradicated, and Rumkowski became the sole employer for the entire ghetto population.
At the same time confiscations of other personal property such as clothes, valuables gold, silver, jewelry, currency and housewares continued. In addition, a ban was in effect after June 3, forbidding the trafficking of food and valuables to and from the ghetto with the exception of old clothes. On December 17 Rumkowski ordered that all owners of furs and coats sell them or face reprisals. To justify confiscations, Rumkowski came up with the slogan that no one in the ghetto should have the privilege of owning private property.
The earliest consequence of this deprivation and impoverishment in the ghetto was unremitting hunger, which was to pervade the lives of ghetto inhabitants throughout its existence. The Nazis set the level of provisioning in the ghetto at 30 pfennigs per person per day, which was lower than the per capita norms in prisons pfennigs. Also Rumkowski, being the sole distributor of provisions within the ghetto, conducted a provisioning policy of his own, rewarding some with better rations and punishing others.
In time, a provisioning pyramid was created in the ghetto, where the few at the top had enough to eat while the overwhelming mass of ghetto inmates starved. The system of food rationing except for bread was introduced in the ghetto on June 2, and from this day ration cards regulated life in the ghetto. In the population tried to resist. Hunger demonstrations and disturbances marked the first year of the ghetto. Demonstrators took to the streets on August 10 and 11 and again during the first week of October.
The last known disturbances occurred on January 11 and 12, They were put down by the Ordnungsdienst and German police. Trying to stabilize the situation in the ghetto, Rumkowski appealed to the German administration, and on September 19 received a loan on 2,, Reichsmarks. He used the 1oan for relief payments to over 70, destitute ghetto inmates. At the same time he was moving towards the total rationing of provisions.
This was announced on December 15, , with rationing of bread as well. On December 27 Rumkowski announced the takeover of all private food stores, restaurants and home kitchens and assigned the distribution of food to his own stores. By the rationing system was firmly in place, and provisioning was fully regulated. Notwithstanding the rapid deterioration of living conditions in the ghetto, communal, and social institutions and organizations were still active in the years and Reckless killing did not stop altogether, to be sure, and many took place at the ghetto fence where the Schupo Schutzpolizei - Protective Police guards shot at anyone who came too close.
In , an insane asylum in the ghetto was liquidated, and over one hundred of its patients were killed. A sedative, Scopolamin, was administered to them before execution. In order to accomodate them, Rumkowski ordered the closing of ghetto schools and the conversion of school buildings into reception centers.
The schools were never to open again. Many of them readily went to their final deportation in to the death camp in Chelmno, convinced that nothing worse than their life in the ghetto could happen to them.
Several Jewish communities from the neighboring towns were annihilated there between December 7 and January 14, — altogether some 6, people. Over , Jews from Wartheland were annihilated in Chelmno.
Wool Mohair Yarn Factory
Plates illustrating darned net filet , but also suitable for cross-stitch and filet crochet. Most of the plates are clear enough to work from. Includes borders, squares, scenes from fairy tales, myths, lords and ladies, the virtues, some Roman gods and heroes, heraldic beasts, and classical cherubs. A few of the designs can be sourced to 16th century modelbooks, but they are not attributed.
General building contractors who combine a special trade with the contracting are included in this major group. Specialized activities that are covered here include grading for highways and airport runways; guardrail construction; installation of highway signs; trenching; underwater rock removal; and asphalt and concrete construction of roads, highways, streets and public sidewalks. Establishments primarily engaged in specialized activities that may be performed on buildings or on other heavy construction projects are classified in Major Group These include contractors primarily engaged in painting including bridge painting and traffic lane painting , electrical work including work on bridges, power lines, and power plants , and carpentry work. These activities include painting including bridge painting and traffic lane painting , electrical work including work on bridges, power lines, and power plants , carpentry work, plumbing, heating, air-conditioning, roofing, and sheet metal work.
I was among the group of inmates whom the Germans had left in the ghetto after the last deportation in August, We were to pack and ship the goods and equipment left behind by those Jews who had been deported. The papers that I found there, which had once been so meticulously sorted and filed, were in complete disarray. I stuffed them in large glass jars and later buried the jars in a remote spot. I also had another hiding place where I kept photographs, drawings and paintings made by ghetto artists. I broke away from the group and ran inside. As a former employee of the ghetto post office, I knew the place well. Making my way through the silent corridors and empty rooms, I reached the back door and entered the adjoining house where the ghetto archives were located. Several suitcases bulging with documents stood on the floor covered with scattered papers.
Week Four B -Textiles, Clothing & Fashion
Patterns for crochet edging, numbered from to Short explanation of stitches on inside cover. Plates illustrating darned net filet , but also suitable for cross-stitch and filet crochet. Most of the plates are clear enough to work from.
Account Options Sign in. New York Magazine. New York magazine was born in after a run as an insert of the New York Herald Tribune and quickly made a place for itself as the trusted resource for readers across the country. With award-winning writing and photography covering everything from politics and food to theater and fashion, the magazine's consistent mission has been to reflect back to its audience the energy and excitement of the city itself, while celebrating New York as both a place and an idea. Contenido Von Bulow's appeal strategy. Alan M. Dershowitz American lawyer. Rich and wholesome. Arthur J.
Volume contains accounts between the firm and its customers in New Hampshire and Massachusetts who usually made payment with other products. Davenport operated a furnituremaking firm in Boston and had a showroom in New York City. Consists of twelve pen-and-ink and pencil drawings of various furniture forms, including a bed, sideboards, tables, and chairs. Drawings show English and ecclesiastical influences. Daughter of George M. Abbot, young Elsie resided in the Germantown section of Philadelphia when she created her scrapbook. Abiel Abbott worked as a cooper and part-time farmer in Wilton, New Hampshire. Abbott and his wife, Doreas, married in and had six children. Manuscript volumes document the products Abbott made, including sap barrels, meat barrels, butter churns, beer barrels, hooped tubs and churns, etc. Jackson J.
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Tailoring is the art of designing, cutting, fitting, and finishing clothes. The word tailor comes from the French tailler , to cut, and appears in the English language during the fourteenth century.
Они обменялись индексами, чтобы иметь возможность при желании связаться друг с другом. Элвин в нетерпении ожидал новой встречи с Шутом, одновременно слегка опасаясь, что его общество окажется утомительным при слишком длительном контакте. К тому же он хотел предварительно узнать, что могут рассказать о Хедроне его друзья и, в частности, Джезерак. - До следующей встречи, - сказал Хедрон и попросту исчез.
Он,пригляделся и тотчас же исполнился сомнением, потому что значение таких же вот линий было ему слишком хорошо известно. Он уже видел такие же раньше -- в пустыне за пределами Диаспара, и они теперь сказали ему, что путешествие к планете оказалось напрасным. -- Она такая же сухая, как и Земля.
-- упавшим голосом выдохнул Олвин.
По этим огромным проходам в течение всей своей вечной жизни двигались роботы Диаспара; эхо человеческих шагов слышалось здесь, наверное, не чаще одного раза в столетие. Это был подземный город, город машин, без которых Диаспар не мог бы существовать.