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- Tesla Survived Manufacturing Hell--Now Comes The Hard Part
- Can Indian Manufacturing Be the Next Chinese Manufacturing?
- Fan Coil Unit Manufacturers
- Foxconn reopens Indian manufacturing unit as Asian smartphone demand grows
- Industrial Transformation Blog
- Everything You Need to Know about Manufacturing in China
- Link Manufacturing Process and Product Life Cycles
- Toyota’s European manufacturing plants
Tesla Survived Manufacturing Hell--Now Comes The Hard PartVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: U1_02 Measuring Units
Descriptions of manufacturing processes 1. This analysis had to identify the amount, type and quality of energy required so as to identify possible energy savings compatible to the respective cost-benefit analysis.
The following process descriptions of the manufacture of sawn timber, plywood and particleboard are of a general nature and should provide the reader with a broad outline of the production processes involved in the mechanical wood-based industry and the role in which energy plays a part. Sawmilling is a less sophisticated activity of the mechanical forest industries.
It implies a certain number of operations from handling and transportation of logs to timber drying, sorting and classification which require different types of energy. Whereas in developing countries most of the processes are highly mechanized and the energy requirements are met basically with the generation of a few kW to drive the main saws. The rest of the processes are carried out using animal power and low-cost manpower. Nevertheless, independently of the nature of the processes and activities involved, all actions aimed to save energy require a detailed analysis of existing processes and possible solutions.
Figure 1 provides a layout of a typical plant and a description of the main processes to familiarize the reader. Sufficient quantities are stockpiled to ensure the sawmill's continuous operation, particularly during adverse weather conditions when log extraction and supply from the forests may be adversely affected.
Transportation and handling of logs vary from mill to mill and largely depend on the capacity of the sawmill operation and the size of the loss received. Manual and animal power, as may be used in small portable sawmill units, through to log-carrying front-end loaders and overhead cranes indicate the wide variety of handling equipment currently in use. Figure 1. Sawmilling - A simplied process flow Debarking of logs, whether it be undertaken manually or by mechanical debarkers, in the forests or at the mill site, is now becoming a generally adopted practice.
Debarking is to safeguard saws and other equipment from undue wear and damage that would otherwise result from stones, metal and other such contraries embedded in the bark; debarking also facilitates the head sawyer to evaluate the timber. Log washers may also be used to remove any remaining sand or dirt that may adher to the logs' surface. The pattern of cut is largely determined by the dimension and condition of the log, as well as the market requirements for the widths and thicknesses of the lumber.
Sawing of the log is achieved by the use of a bandsaw or a circular saw with a second saw mounted vertically above the first in the event of sawing large diameter logs. A log carriage conveys the log through the headsaw on which the log may be clamped and turned, so as to enable it to be presented to the headsaw in order to achieve the best sawing pattern. Following the headrig, further breakdown of slabs, flitches and cants takes place in the resaw, which enables the wood to be upgraded; thick slabs being sawn into planks and the flitches and cants sawn into planks and boards.
The rough round edges of the pieces coming from the headrig and resaws are removed by either a circular saw or chipper edger so as to produce standardized widths as required. On leaving the headrig, resaw or edger, the lumber is cut to standardized lengths, edges squared and defects removed by the use of one or more fixed or moveable trimming saws, whereupon the lumber proceeds to be sorted and graded.
Grading is a means to segregate the lumber according to the overall quality, direction of grain, presence of knots and defects, as well as general appearance, etc. To protect the sawntimber against attack from fungi and insects, as well as to inhibit the tendency of air-dried lumber to check and split, the ends may be brushed either manually or mechanically dipped in a suitably prepared chemical solution.
Wax or paint is applied to the end-grain of lumber to be air-dried, either by brush or spraying, so as to act as a sealant in order to bring about a slower drying of the extremities and hence, give rise to a more uniform drying of the lumber.
By drying and lowering the moisture content to an acceptable level its value is enhanced by virtue of the fact that the timber is dimensionally stabilized and its strength and colour improved; also a reduction in weight lowers transport costs.
Air drying involves the stacking of sawntimber in piles in the open or under sheds on suitably prepared ground, in such a manner that they are exposed to a good flow of air until such time that the required moisture content is attained.
Although air drying involves minimal capital and operating costs it does require a large amount of land, involves large inventories which constitute a fire risk, and the conditions and rate of drying are very much beyond the yard operator's control.
Kiln drying, on the other hand, enables the sawntimber to dry in a closed and controlled environment where temperature, air circulation and humidity may be regulated so as to achieve the most economical drying conditions without resulting in degrade. The two most common kilns are the batch and progressive type. The former dries the timber in chambers as a batch charge, whereas the latter dries the timber whilst it progresses through the length of the kiln on trucks.
As kiln-drying of sawntimber accounts for some percent of the total energy consumed in the sawmilling process, it is now becoming a widely accepted practice in the sawmilling industry to use its residues as a fuel source, the energy value of which may even be surplus to the mill's requirements.
Further upgrading may be effected by surface planing with the use of rotary knife planers or abrasive belts, according to the needs of the market. In Figure 2, a typical plant layout is provided to illustrate to the readers the processes involved. Handling may be by heavy lift trucks, derricks or cranes, all of which are sized to cater for the logs' dimensions and weight.
Figure 2. Plywood production - A simplified process flow Before peeling, the majority of timbers need to be conditioned so as to soften the wood in order to facilitate peeling and to produce an acceptable quality of veneer. Conditioning involves the exposure of the peeler blocks to both heat and moisture by way of soaking in hot water vats or exposed to live steam or hot water sprays.
Debarking of the logs then takes place so as to facilitate the lathe operator's task and to remove the dirt and debris which would otherwise prove detrimental to the lathe knife, whereupon the logs are cut to length to fit the lathe, which is normally cm.
The veneer sheet is then wound on spools, or led to a multi-tray system, so as to provide storage and surge capacity in the event of fluctuations in the veneer feed from the lathe; speeds of both storage systems are generally synchronized to that of the lathe.
The green veneer is then clipped to size, either manually or by high-speed knives, graded and stored in piles ready for drying. Any defects, such as knots and splits, are then cut out of the sheet. Depending on the location and sophistication of the plywood mill, the veneer sheets may either be left outside to dry in the air or kiln-dried. Kiln-drying involves the drying of stacked veneer in batches or the continuous drying of sheets which are mechanically conveyed either on a continous belt or roller system through the length of the dryer.
Obviously a controlled drying environment, with minimal handling, will result in a more uniformly dried veneer, with the least amount of damage. Veneer drying accounts for some 70 percent of the thermal energy consumed in plywood production and approximately 60 percent of the mill's total energy requirement. For this reason new and improved drying systems are being constantly developed, as well as the manner in which they are heated. Dryer heating may be by the indirect use of steam or thermic oil, or direct firing with the temperature being controlled by the regulation of the fresh-air make-up.
Glue is then applied to the inner plies or core, which in turn, are laid between the outer veneers ready for bonding. This operation accounts for a large share of the manual labour employed in the production process. Although hand roller spreaders is a widely used method of glue application, developments in alternative systems have led to the adoption of curtain coaters, extruders, spray booths, etc.
Heating of the platens is generally by hot water or steam, although thermic oil is used when pressing at higher temperatures. Cold pre-pressing, at comparatively low pressures, is not being incorporated in the more recent production lines.
This is largely due to the fact that veneer stuck together is easier to handle and load into the hot-press, added to which the ply's reduced thickness allows for smaller daylight openings in the hot press resulting in an overall reduction in loading and hot pressing time. It is carried out at either separate work stations, or, in the case of modern mills, as a combined operation in a continuous semi-automatic line. Trimming saws cut the plywood boards to the required size, which are then sanded in machines fitted with wide-belt or drum sanders so as to obtain the desired surface smoothness.
Damage or imperfections to the face veneers are then manually repaired by plugging and the application of patches. Plywood is produced in a wide range of sizes and thicknesses, although the sizes most commonly produced are x mm together with x mm and x mm sized panels.
Thicknesses may range from mm, with the number of plies being between three for boards up to 7. In most cases, particle production involves a certain number of operations as described below see Figure 3 which require different amounts and types of energy. Figure 3. Particleboard production - A simplified process flow 1.
In view of the wide assortment of furnish delivered to the mill-yard, segregation as to size, and if possible, species, must be carried out prior to the reduction process. Bark is removed from logs, if not already done in the forests, so as to avoid blunting chipper knives, and the provision of stone-traps and magnetic separators safeguard other reduction equipment from damage which would otherwise be caused if contraries were introduced with the fibre furnish.
The particle size and geometry, as required for the core and surface layers of the particleboard, are produced by a diverse range of reduction equipment which is matched to the variety and size of wood and wood residues used.
Chippers, knife-ring-flakers, hammer mills, disc refiners, etc. Particle drying is a continuous process with the particles moving along the length of rotating horizontal dryers whilst being suspended and exposed to hot gases or heat emitted from tube bundles which convey hot water, steam or thermic oil. Heat is produced by the combustion of oil, gas or process residues. Flash drying is now being considered an acceptable alternative to rotary dryers and requires somewhat lower drying temperatures.
Directly after drying, the particles are screened for size in vibrating or gyrating screens, or by way of air classification. Screening normally takes place after the dryers as moist particles tend to stick together, plugging screen plates and lowering the overall efficiency of the screening process. Particles are separated according to size, for the purpose of grading the furnish for the board face and core layers. It is essential that the oversized particles be recycled for further reduction and that the fines are screened out, so as to avoid consuming a disproportionate amount of resin binder, and to provide a valued source of fuel.
Between three and ten percent by weight of resin, together with other additives used to impart such properties as fire resistance, etc. Blending may either take place in large vats at slow speed, or in small blenders with rapid mixing and shorter blending times.
In the more modern particleboard plants mat forming is a wholly mechanical process, whereas the older formers require manual equalizing. In spite of the wide variety of formers currently available, the underlying principles of mat formation are generally similar, in that a uniform flow of particles are fed to the former from a surge bin, which in turn meters an evenly distributed layer of particles into a frame on a moving belt or caul.
The formers may be fitted with single or multiple forming heads, which are either stationary or moving, and are so designed that the finest particles are delivered to form the surface layers of the mat and the coarser materials to form the core. In all cases it is paramount that an evenly distributed mat of the desired weight be formed.
Mats that do not conform to standard are rejected and recycled. Transportation of the mats to the pre-press and hot press is undertaken by either forming the mat on metal plates, called cauls, which are then either manually or mechanically wheeled to the presses, or in the case of caulless systems, by using flexible metal webs, plastic belts and trays that transport the mats through to the hot-press. This allows for ease of handling and the use of narrower openings in the hot-press, thereby considerably reducing pressing time.
Single or multiple opening hot presses may be used with the loading and unloading undertaken manually or mechanically by cable, chain lifts or hydraulics, depending on the age and sophistication of the plant. Although in the larger modern installations both pressing time and pressures are automatically regulated, hand control is still preferred in many plants as it permits adjustments to be made for the different mat qualities.
The cauls are stacked, allowed to cool and then returned to the forming station on push carts or mechanically transported on a fixed return line. The boards in turn, are cooled and conditioned so as to avoid degradation of the urea resins. Trimming saws are used to cut the boards to size, with the edge trimmings being either recycled or used for fuel. In order to meet set standards as to thickness and surface quality, a combination of knife planers and belt or drum sanders may be used.
Once the boards have been surface finished they are cut to size along their length and widths with a combination of saws, according to the dictates of the market. Particleboard is normally produced as x mm panels with thicknesses ranging from mm, 19 mm being the most common. Generally boards are manufactured in the medium-density range of kg per cubic metre, although high-density board of kg per cubic metre is used as core stock.
Annual Report of the Secretary of War. United States. War Dept. Sayfa
Can Indian Manufacturing Be the Next Chinese Manufacturing?
Manufacturing is experiencing a kind of renaissance inside our cities, driven by changes in attitudes towards Making and changes in technology that enable small firms to produce high quality, high-value products and take advantage of emerging local and increasingly distributed supply chains. The implications of this renaissance can and will be profound. Our competitiveness is on the rise as higher-value, more on-demand manufacturing becomes more common. Well-paying jobs are being created, often with new and more technical skills as a requirement. The converse is also true: older, lower-skilled jobs are going away due to the rise of new forms of automation. Along the way, industries such as fashion, furniture manufacturing, textile production and even electronics are being reclaimed and reimagined in the Maker City. Local economies in particular stand to gain from new forms of goods that are not mass-produced but instead made locally, in relatively small batches, often with advanced materials and customized to better fit what people truly want and need.
Fan Coil Unit Manufacturers
Europe is a major manufacturing centre for us. Today we have nine manufacturing centres building cars, engines and transmissions across the continent, each one committed to delivering ever better cars for our customers. We have a workforce of more than 17, people dedicated to building not just the eight different models we manufacture in Europe, but also most of the engines and transmissions they use as well. Many drivers may not be aware of it, but there is every chance their Toyota was built in Europe. In fact, 8 out of 10 Toyota cars sold in Europe are built at one of our European production centres, too.
Account Options Anmelden. Meine Mediathek Hilfe Erweiterte Buchsuche. The Canadian Encyclopedia. This edition of "The Canadian Encyclopedia is the largest, most comprehensive book ever published in Canada for the general reader. Every entry is compiled by an expert. Equally important, every entry is written for a Canadian reader, from the Canadian point of view. The finished work - many years in the making, and the equivalent of forty average-sized books - is an extraordinary storehouse of information about our country. This book deserves pride of place on the bookshelf in every Canadian Home. It is no accident that the cover of this book is based on the Canadian flag.
Foxconn reopens Indian manufacturing unit as Asian smartphone demand grows
Manufacturing is no longer simply about making physical products. Changes in consumer demand, the nature of products, the economics of production, and the economics of the supply chain have led to a fundamental shift in the way companies do business. Customers demand personalization and customization as the line between consumer and creator continues to blur.
Posted by Mark Davidson on Wed, Oct 09, Part of this is human nature. Everyone has more piled on their plate than ever, and many workers find themselves constantly re-prioritizing their work activities. Therefore, metrics that have the attention of business and manufacturing leaders tend to be those that get measured and improved upon by their employee teams. Effectively measuring, analyzing, and improving manufacturing metrics is not as simple as it may appear. For this reason, metrics need to be aligned to larger goals and objectives. This mnemonic contains some key concepts. In manufacturing, each major goal typically requires multiple metrics. The list of 28 metrics that appear in this post are grouped together relating to specific higher-level goals and objectives e.
Industrial Transformation Blog
Developing an idea for a product is meaningless if you can't adequately produce it. Properly manufacturing your product requires an understanding of the design, materials and budget. For most businesses trying to turn ideas and prototypes into a tangible product, you'll need the help of a manufacturing facility, especially if you're trying to produce in bulk. Here's what you need to consider as you search for a factory to produce your product. Before you hire a factory and start producing your product, you need to take care of a few beginning steps.
Everything You Need to Know about Manufacturing in China
Report of the Philippine Commission to the Secretary of War. United States. Philippine Commission Includes information by the Commission and various public officials and agencies on the economic, social, geographic and local governmental development of the Philippines. Sayfa Annual report of the Philippine Commission. An act to provide for the organization of the office of. Report of the secretary of the interiorContinued Page. Report of the chief of the bureau of coast guard and transporta. Report of the bureau of engineering.
Link Manufacturing Process and Product Life Cycles
Descriptions of manufacturing processes 1. This analysis had to identify the amount, type and quality of energy required so as to identify possible energy savings compatible to the respective cost-benefit analysis. The following process descriptions of the manufacture of sawn timber, plywood and particleboard are of a general nature and should provide the reader with a broad outline of the production processes involved in the mechanical wood-based industry and the role in which energy plays a part. Sawmilling is a less sophisticated activity of the mechanical forest industries.
Toyota’s European manufacturing plants
Report of the Philippine Commission to the Secretary of War. United States.
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His work may thus require in addition to physical exertion familiarity with variety of articles or goods. His work is thus limited to the performance of routine operations of limited scope.