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Physichochemical and Low Stress Mechanical Properties of Silk Fabrics Degummed by EnzymesVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Fabric 101: All About Silk
Sericulture industry is the combination of agriculture, animal husbandry, cottage industry and pure textile activities. The quality of end products directly relates to any minute variations taking place in all these varied phases, which calls for careful planning, skill requirement and an effective delivery mechanisms at the governmental and private sectors.
There are many activities termed as components in the silk industry. Mulberry, the food plant of mulberry silkworm is cultivated following the prescribed package of practices evolved by the research institutes over the years. Mulberry is a perennial crop which can easily give yield for years. Mulberry grows in almost all types of soil, but the plantation requires sufficient exposure to sun, organic inputs and availability of water in sufficient quantities.
Mostly mulberry is cultivated in bush form and in some areas as trees. It is generally pruned twice in a year and the leaves can be harvested five times in a year. The food plants of the non-mulberry silkworms are mostly found in the nature. However, systematic plantations of some of these food plants are done in many countries to enhance productivity, thereby making the avocation economically viable. These food plants are cultivated in forest fringe areas and other places which are found to be unsuitable for food crop cultivation.
Mulberry silkworm rearing is generally conducted in indoor as an animal husbandry occupation. The rearing is a complex process wherein the various factors like, temperature, humidity, leaf quality, rearing house, control of diseases, etc.
The leaves or twigs are brought from the field and feed to the silkworms in separately erected platforms or trays. After the gestation period of about 25 to 28 days, the matured worms are picked up and transferred into the mountages for spinning the cocoons. The spinning process will be completed within three days and the cocoons can be harvested for marketing after five days.
The mulberry and eri silkworms are reared in this fashion in separate rearing houses. In case of Tasar and Muga, the young age silkworms are transferred to naturally grown trees to feed on the leaves and to form cocoons there itself. The gestation period of the rearing is about 30 days.
The cocoons are then harvested manually by the farmers. The seed is produced in specially designed buildings called as Seed Production Centres. There are various production processes like cocoon selection, cocoon preservation, ovi position, egg laying, moth examination, etc.
In case of the nucleus and basic seed production units, separate plantations are maintained for undertaking seed cocoon rearing. For the production of commercial seeds, the seed cocoons are mostly reared among the seed cocoon farmers.
Reeling is the process at which the compact untwisted and undegummed silk thread is formed by combining the required number of silk filaments drawn from as many separate cocoons by a special technique.
There is a series of skilled operations dealing with the raw material which is composed of extremely fine continuous silk filament of great length unlike other natural textile fibres. Reeling demands constant attention and care on the part of the reeler since during the process of reeling the cocoon filament may break continuously and the reeler must properly attach and fresh filament which is always kept ready in reserve.
However nowadays with the introduction of Automatic Reeling Machines, there is an automated system to pick up the cocoons during the breakage of cocoons. The art of reeling is believed to have originated in China nearly years back. Reeling is generally done as a cottage industry in most of the developing countries. Different types of machines are used for the reeling activities. But, the countries like India and Thailand, the traditional machineries like charkha, cottage basin and multi-end reeling machines continue to dominate the reeling industry.
The Muga and Tasar silks are also generated through silk reeling. However, Eri silk yarn is produced by spinning of cut cocoons. In most of the countries cocoons and raw silk are transacted through Government owned cocoon markets silk exchanges to ensure transparency and fair pricing in trading.
Colloquially silk throwing can be used to refer to the whole process: reeling, throwing and doubling. In other words, wet process is done on manufactured silk fabric. The processes of this stream is involved or carried out in aqueous stage and thus it is called silk wet process which usually covers pre-treatment, dyeing, printing and finishing.
All these stages are required aqueous medium which is created by water. A massive amount of water is required in these processes per day. Hence, water is a prime concerned in silk wet processing. Weaving is the operation which creates a fabric by interlacing the wrap yarns lengthwise and the weft yarns.
Weaving is carried out on looms, after a series of preliminary operations including warping and pirning. Weaving in silk industry is generally done in handlooms and powerlooms. The powerlooms are mostly prevalent in China.
In Thailand, the handloom weaving is very strong and the designs produced by Thai weavers are exclusive and famous across the world. Enormous improvements have been made in improving not only the machines but also the loom itself. Automatic weaving machines, machines for weaving wider fabrics, shuttle less looms, Jacquard looms, etc. Although, acid dyes have been traditionally used in silk, the trend is now changing with more focus on vegetable dyes.
The ban on certain azo dyes in European countries has reasoned the exporters to pay more attention to the selection and use of dyes to exported goods. Printing consists of transferring a pattern to the fabric. The printing is carried on the following manner:. Block printing - Raised parts of the block transfer the dyestuff to the fabrics. Roller printing - Fabric to be passed through the rollers engraved with design. The pores in the gauze is partially blocked off allowing the dye stuff to be squeezed through the gauze where the design is to be printed.
Discharge printing - Is the combination of dyeing and printing. Alternatively, the base fabric is completely dyed, the dye is then removed from the parts to be decorated, and the design is then printed over.
Spray printing - The dyestuff is sprayed directly on the fabric covered with stencils. Warp printing - Only the warp yarns are printed before weaving. All fabrics have to be finished with the exception of pattern weaves.
Finishing gives a fabric the desired appearance and feel. There are numerous finishing processes, physical and chemical. Finishing includes treatments such as crease proofing, water proofing, fire proofing, etc. The waste materials are partially boiled off to remove some of the gum, and are then carded and combed to make staple fibres parallel to each other.
The resulting strips of fibre, silvers, are then transformed into yarn: the longer filaments become spun-silk, or schappe, and the shorter one silk noil. Raw silk is tested and graded according to specified and accepted standards before marketing. Testing has been done generally in the testing houses operated by the Government and private agencies. At present, the cocoon testing evolved by the erstwhile International Silk Association has been followed in the world.
The raw silk classification is based on the grade, which is derived from the denier thickness of silk in value terms and other tests conducted for the purpose. Skip to main content. Search form.
Search this site. Food Plant Cultivation Mulberry, the food plant of mulberry silkworm is cultivated following the prescribed package of practices evolved by the research institutes over the years.
Rearing Mulberry silkworm rearing is generally conducted in indoor as an animal husbandry occupation. Seed Production Healthy seed is the backbone of sericulture industry. Seed, at the same time, may act as one of the main vehicles for dissemination of diseases. Seed-borne pathogens, such as protozoa, fungi, bacteria and viruses are serious constraints to sericulture industry.
Hence, healthy seed material, free from diseases and having high viability is essential for establishing the crop in the first instance. And also availability of quality silkworm seed in adequate quantities is the pre-requisite in achieving the targeted silk production besides improving upon the productivity parameters.
To produce quality seed, it is very important to adopt scientific methods of egg production right from seed crop rearing to egg incubation. The silkworm seeds are produced through a four-tier seed multiplication network to retain the inherent genetical characters like hybrid vigour and disease freeness. The commercial seeds are produced in the seed multiplication centres from the F1 seed supplied from the basic seed farms. Reeling Reeling is the process at which the compact untwisted and undegummed silk thread is formed by combining the required number of silk filaments drawn from as many separate cocoons by a special technique.
Marketing In most of the countries cocoons and raw silk are transacted through Government owned cocoon markets silk exchanges to ensure transparency and fair pricing in trading.
Silk Weaving Weaving is the operation which creates a fabric by interlacing the wrap yarns lengthwise and the weft yarns. Printing Printing consists of transferring a pattern to the fabric. The pores in the gauze is partially blocked off allowing the dye stuff to be squeezed through the gauze where the design is to be printed Discharge printing - Is the combination of dyeing and printing.
Dupion silk The double cocoons are reeled by special technique and give thicker, uneven silk yarn which when woven makes an irregualr appearance to the fabric. This fabric yarn is highly prized among the fashion designers. Raw Silk Testing Raw silk is tested and graded according to specified and accepted standards before marketing. Types of silk fabrics The major types are: Taffetas Poult and faille Crepes Chiffon, organdie, voile, grenadine Twills Satins Composite or fancy weaves Reps, regencies, piques Ottomans, grosgrains, fluted fabrics Velvets Gauzes, bayanderes, tartans, etc.
In Focus An extensive in-house review on the various activities of the ISC and the status of sericulture industry in the world. DPR Korea. Healthy seed is the backbone of sericulture industry. The double cocoons are reeled by special technique and give thicker, uneven silk yarn which when woven makes an irregualr appearance to the fabric.
Register Now. The protein fibers are formed by natural animal sources through condensation of a-amino acids to form repeating polyamide units with a various substituent on the a-carbon atom. In general, protein fibers are fibers of moderate strength, resiliency, and elasticity. They have excellent moisture absorbency and transport characteristics.
Clothing from banana fiber
Did you know the very first pair of Levis were made of hemp? And did you know that hemp was planted near and around the Chernobyl nuclear disaster site to pull radioactive elements from the ground? Derived from the Cannabis Sativa plant, the fibres of hemp are well known for their durability and ruggedness. In their raw state, hemp fibres are yellowish grey to deep brown.
Textile manufacturing is a major industry. It is based on the conversion of fibre into yarn , yarn into fabric. These are then dyed or printed, fabricated into clothes. Different types of fibres are used to produce yarn. Cotton remains the most important natural fibre, so is treated in depth. There are many variable processes available at the spinning and fabric-forming stages coupled with the complexities of the finishing and colouration processes to the production of a wide range of products. Cotton is the world's most important natural fibre.
Read more. All textiles are made up of fibres that are arranged in different ways to create the desired strength, durability, appearance and texture. The fibres can be of countless origins, but can be grouped into four main categories. Natural fibres, with the exception of silk, have a relatively short fibre length, measured in centimetres. Silk and man-made fibres have on the other hand very long fibre lengths filaments ranging from hundreds of metres to kilometres long. Plant fibres consists of cellulosic material, normally derived from cotton, linen, hemp or bamboo, but more or less any plant with extractable cellulose can be used. Cotton is by far the most commonly used plant fibre and the cultivation of cotton is enormously resource-intensive, with high inputs of water, pesticides, insecticides and fertilisers leaving a large toxic footprint where grown, if not cultivated organically or under specific sustainable conditions. Animal fibres consist of proteins. Wool and silk are the most commonly used fibres from this group, but the wool can come from a number of different animals. In order to make animals grow faster and produce higher yields of wool, pesticides and insecticides are used to prevent disease.
Series on Fibres: Turning Hemp into Fabric
Mazharul Islam Kiron is a textile consultant and researcher on online business promotion. He is working with one European textile machinery company as a country agent. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia. Email: maruf.
Natural fibers have been used historically to produce our clothes, carpets, cordage, paper, ships sails, and insulation and building materials. The use of natural fibers, both plant, and animal, to meet our needs goes back thousands of years and plays a significant role in history. In the history of natural fibers, one of the oldest recorded uses of plant fibre for fabrics is the use of hemp which was already being cultivated in China in BC. Like agriculture, textiles have been a fundamental part of human life since the dawn of civilization. Fragments of cotton articles dated from BC have been excavated in Mexico and Pakistan. According to Chinese tradition, the history of silk begins in the 27 th century BC. Fibres such as jute and coir have been cultivated since antiquity. In the last hundred years or so there has been a turn away from natural fibers towards synthetic materials, mostly derived from petrochemicals. This change was a result of the technological revolution and the short-term economic advantages of synthetics. The pendulum is once again swinging towards natural fibres and we are now seeing a growing movement away from petrochemical-based fibers back to natural fibers. There are several reasons for this.
List of textile fibres
Clothing made from pineapple fiber
From its plant at Naroda, Reliance spearheaded the manufacturing and marketing of the most iconic brand in the history of textiles in India — 'Vimal'. Our manufacturing division at Naroda houses one of the largest and most modern textile complexes in the world, an achievement recognised by The World Bank. Through Vimal, we brought in a new era in fabrics. Vimal became not only a flagship brand of Reliance, but also one of the most trusted in brands the country. It is also the first major retail chain in the country. We supply premium finished fabrics to prestigious brands and export to over 58 countries.
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Textile fibres or textile fibers see spelling differences can be created from many natural sources animal hair or fur, insect cocoons as with silk worm cocoons , as well as semisynthetic methods that use naturally occurring polymers, and synthetic methods that use polymer-based materials, and even minerals such as metals to make foils and wires. The textile industry requires that fibre content be provided on content labels. These labels are used to test textiles under different conditions to meet safety standards for example, for flame-resistance , and to determine whether or not a textile is machine washable or must be dry-cleaned.
Sericulture industry is the combination of agriculture, animal husbandry, cottage industry and pure textile activities. The quality of end products directly relates to any minute variations taking place in all these varied phases, which calls for careful planning, skill requirement and an effective delivery mechanisms at the governmental and private sectors. There are many activities termed as components in the silk industry.
Many health conscious people love to have Pineapple as their favorite dessert. It protects from a simple flu as well as fights off free radicals that cause cancer.