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Tactical air navigation systemVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Single Pilot Jet Flight! Naples, Florida to Indy. A Beautiful Morning departure.
The only exception to this fact, in the aviation case, occurs where an airport zoning regulation, made pursuant to the Aeronautics Act, is in force. The Minister of Transport may exercise authority only over lands that are included in an Airport Zoning Regulation made pursuant to the Act.
An Airport Zoning Regulation contains restrictive clauses that describe the activities and uses that are restricted or prohibited and contains a legal description of the lands to which it applies. Individual zoning regulations are included in a listing of regulations made pursuant to the Aeronautics Act and may be found at the following internet address: Aeronautics Act R.
This publication describes not only the operational characteristics of aerodromes but also different types of land uses outside the aerodrome property boundary and recommends, where applicable, guidelines for those land uses in the vicinity of aerodromes. In addition, the source documents have been linked to further explain the technical aeronautical requirements. Aerodrome : Any area of land, water including the frozen surface thereof or other supporting surface used or designed, prepared, equipped or set apart for use either in whole or in part for the arrival, departure, movement or servicing of aircraft and includes any buildings, installations and equipment situated thereon or associated therewith.
Aerodrome Reference Point : The designated point or points on an aerodrome normally located near the geometric centre of the runway complex that:. Graded Area : An area surrounding the runway which is graded to a specified standard to minimize hazards to aircraft which may accidentally run off the runway surface. Heliport : An aerodrome or a defined area on a structure intended to be used wholly or in part for the arrival, departure and surface movement of helicopters.
Obstacle Limitation Surface : A surface that establishes the limit to which objects may project into the airspace associated with an aerodrome consisting of the following; a takeoff surface, an approach surface, a transitional surface and an outer surface. Runway Strip : A defined area including the runway, and stopway if provided, intended to reduce the risk of damage to aircraft running off a runway and to protect aircraft flying over it during takeoff or landing operations.
Water Aerodrome : means an aerodrome that uses an area of water, excluding the frozen surface of that area, for the arrival, departure, movement or servicing of aircraft. This publication is designed to assist planners and legislators at all levels of government in becoming familiar with issues related to land use in the vicinity of aerodromes.
The land use around aerodromes can have significant impacts on safety at the aerodrome and can negatively impact the operational viability of the aerodrome to the detriment of the local community that depends upon it. The compatible land use planning concept is an outgrowth of the focus of attention on the environmental relationship between aerodromes and their community neighbours.
This planning concept is relatively simple and the results can be impressive, but the implementation requires careful study and co-ordinated planning. However, there are still instances where the use of these guidelines will result in more compatible aerodrome and community development.
As new and non-traditional uses of land become more prevalent e. The ninth edition of TP has been revised to address these issues. Where units of measure are quoted in this document, the metric numbers are to be heeded as the equivalent imperial units are approximations only. For the purposes of this document, where the word aerodrome is used, it includes certified aerodromes, non-certified aerodromes, heliports and water aerodromes; where the word airport is used, it specifically means certified aerodromes.
Enquiries relating to the application of these guidelines should be directed to the appropriate Regional Director Civil Aviation. This part will give the reader some insight into those aerodrome operational factors which can affect land uses outside the aerodrome property boundary. Each factor is considered separately and in enough detail to allow general planning conclusions to be drawn.
It is important that any particular land use under consideration be judged from the point of view of all relevant factors. Obstacle Limitation Surfaces are established to ensure the required level of safety. These surfaces normally extend beyond the boundary of the aerodrome and therefore benefit from protection by the enactment of an Airport Zoning Regulation which will prohibit the erection of structures which would violate any of the defined plane surfaces. Where enacted, zoning regulations apply to all the lands, including public road allowances, adjacent to or in the vicinity of an airport; the specific lands are described in the Schedule of the relevant airport zoning regulation.
Lands within an airport boundary are therefore not included in an airport zoning regulation; however, all structures within an airport boundary must comply with obstacle limitation surface requirements, as stated in TP E Aerodrome Standards and Recommended Practices.
For those airports at which an Airport Zoning Regulation has been enacted under the Aeronautics Act, details of the registered zoning plans are available from the Land Registry Office for the district within which the airport is located. Therefore, it is critical that planning and coordination of the siting of obstacles should be conducted in conjunction with an aerodrome operator at the earliest possible opportunity. There are three types of surfaces in place at an aerodrome that should be protected to avoid penetration by objects or structures.
Protection of these surfaces is done by limiting the height of structures, including appurtenances or objects on the ground, to heights that are less than that of the slope surface thereby avoiding penetration of that surface.
Airports that have an Airport Zoning Regulation have these surfaces protected by law and these zoning regulations apply to land that is located outside the property boundary of the airport. Where the facility is an airport, objects penetrating any of these surfaces may affect the operations of the airport and the certification status of the airport.
Where the facility is a non-certified aerodrome, penetration of these surfaces may affect the operations at the aerodrome. Where the facility is a non-certified aerodrome, the standards in TP E Aerodrome Standards and Recommended Practices can be used but are not enforceable; however, the operational integrity of the non-certified aerodrome is enhanced if the designation of the use of land adjacent to the facility is done in line with technical portions of the standards.
A complete description of the standards related to these surfaces may be accessed at the following website:. The following figure will assist the reader in developing a visual picture of the surfaces discussed above. Figure 1: Obstacle Limitation Surfaces. An outer surface shall be established where required for the protection of aircraft conducting a circling procedure or manoeuvring in the vicinity of an aerodrome.
The outer surface establishes the height above which it may be necessary to rake one or more of the following actions:. Note : When the outer surface elevation cannot be held to 45 m, a semi-circular outer surface may be established permitting a circling procedure on one side of the runway. If this compromise solution is not possible, circling as part of an instrument approach procedure should not be recognized, thus eliminating the need for an outer surface.
The outer surface measured from the designated aerodrome reference point or points, shall extend to a horizontal distance of at least:. They are established for each runway direction intended to be used for the take-off and landing of aircraft.
I Runways, 2. If local terrain precludes the use of a glide path, then the lowest usable glide slope should be selected. Figure 3: Obstacle Limitation Surfaces. Transitional surface is a complex surface along the sides of the runway strip and pan of the approach surface that slopes up to the outer surface. Its purpose is to ensure the safety of aircraft at low altitudes displaced from the runway centre line in the approach or missed approach phase. The slope of a transitional surface measured in the vertical, perpendicular to the runway shall be:.
Where topographical or natural obstructions make it economically unreasonable and in the opinion of the Certifying Authority, an equivalent level of safety will be achieved, the transitional surfaces for runways where the code number is 1 or 2, used in Visual Meteorological Conditions VMC may be steepened or eliminated provided the strip width is widened in accordance with the following:. Note : This is intended to provide relief for small aerodromes in mountainous regions, used in VMC, where river valleys, etc.
At other locations an aeronautical study and Headquarters' approval is required before applying the above criteria. The guidance contained in this part is aimed at protecting navigational aids, radars and telecommunications systems which include systems for civil, military, and environmental applications.
Local land use planners and those wishing to erect structures are encouraged to contact regional Transport Canada Civil Aviation offices for assistance in locating any nearby aerodromes and NavCanada for assistance in locating any potentially impacted radars, navigation aids or telecommunications facilities.
Local planners and those wishing to erect structures are encouraged to consult with identified airport and aerodrome operators and NavCanada. NavCanada can be contacted at or by email at landuse navcanada.
The information contained in this part represents the criteria normally applicable for the protection of navigational aids, radars and telecommunications systems. More specific guidance on structures conforming to these values should be available from the owner of the radar, navigational aid or telecommunications system.
Planners should also be aware that, where airport zoning regulations are in effect, specific structures which contravene the values contained within said zoning regulations may sometimes be acceptable, provided that the applicant demonstrates by a technical analysis that such approvals will not cause harmful interference.
Consultation with the radar, navigational aid or telecommunication system owner should take place at an early stage in the project in order to avoid costly redesign or undue pressure when seeking building and site approvals. It is recommended that consultation take place at the building concept stage, before site approval is sought.
The radar, navigational aid or telecommunication system owner should ensure that full coordination takes place with aerodrome and local authorities where there is any air navigation system change that may impact local communities. Note : The development and promulgation of the requirements for the protection of radar, navigational aid or telecommunication systems are the responsibility of the facility owner.
The radar coverage volume for all types of radar systems can be reduced by a structure blocking the transmit or receive signal path. The severity of this blockage is proportional to the size of the structure and varies according to its location.
The size and construction material of buildings and other structures can be controlled to ensure that the radar coverage volume is maintained and that the number of false targets detected is not increased. They are created by transmitted or received signals being reflected from structures. The magnitude of the reflection is proportional to the size of the structure and the electrical behaviour of the material used. Non-metallic materials can reduce the magnitude of the reflection. The protection criteria presented in this section are provided for general guidance purposes only.
No structures exceeding the height of the radar antenna should be built within a radius of m of weather radars. Environment Canada is the entity responsible for siting weather radars in Canada.
The owner or proponent of the structure is responsible for any coordination with Environment Canada. Metallic structures may cause reflection of communication signals.
Although several different standardized types of navigational aids are used to support air navigation, they share the common characteristic that the navigation guidance is derived partially as a function of the direction from which the navigation signals are received. Any structure that causes unwanted reflections of guidance signals will cause some of those signals to be received from a different direction, altering the navigation guidance in a potentially hazardous way.
For this reason, it is important to screen and assess any developments in the vicinity of navigational aids. The following types of structures should be assessed prior to construction to determine the potential impact on navigation signals from an NDB:.
In particular, the equipment requires that:. In general, a clear line-of-sight should be maintained between the antenna system and local flying aircraft. For standard VOR facilities, the following constraints should be applied to maintain the required accuracy of navigation signals:. The following types of structures should be assessed prior to construction to determine the potential impact on navigation signals from a DME:.
ILS supports all-weather precision approach and landing operations. To maintain the safety of landing aircraft, it is critical that the accuracy of ILS navigation signals not be compromised by unwanted reflections or interference. These objects may reflect the ILS signals in unwanted directions, distorting the information provided to aircraft. Planners involved in siting and approval of these sources of interference should contact the ILS facility owner.
For planning purposes, all runways should be considered to be equipped with an ILS at each end. Buildings within the ILS building restricted area are often acceptable after a detailed assessment.
In some cases, measures such as appropriate orientation of the building, shape of reflecting surfaces, etc. For these localizers, the applicable restrictions apply in both directions from the antenna array.
Power lines and substations should be designed, constructed and maintained using state of the art techniques to minimize radiated EMN in the ILS frequency bands. In general, the following should be avoided:. In its many civil aviation responsibilities, Transport Canada remains focused sharply on the safety of air travelers.
This focus has led the department to examine numerous potential hazards, including those found on and in areas around Canadian aerodromes.
Working with industry experts, and based on extensive international scientific research, Transport Canada has confirmed that these hazards include many forms of wildlife, from birds and deer which are often struck by aircraft, to smaller prey animals that attract more hazardous species.
The Decca Navigator System was a hyperbolic radio navigation system which allowed ships and aircraft to determine their position by receiving radio signals from fixed navigational beacons. The system used phase comparison of two low frequency signals between 70 and kHz , as opposed to pulse timing systems like Gee and LORAN. This made it much easier to implement the receivers using s electronics, eliminating the need for a cathode ray tube. It was first deployed by the Royal Navy during World War II when the Allied forces needed a system which could be used to achieve accurate landings and was not known to the Germans and thus free of jamming. After the war, it was extensively developed around the UK and later used in many areas around the world. Decca's primary use was for ship navigation in coastal waters, offering much better accuracy than the competing LORAN system.
Canadian Coast Guard
For six years, demonstration and race pilot Blanche Noyes had ridden herd on a government program that called for navigation markers to be placed on building rooftops to help pilots find their way from one town to another. By , some 13, marks had been painted on barns, hangars, skyscrapers, oil tanks, and train stations. Now, in January , on the heels of the attack on Pearl Harbor, the Civil Aeronautics Administration, goaded by the War Department, directed that all air markers near both coasts be obliterated. Though federal aviation agencies regulated every aspect from letter size 10 to 30 feet tall to paint Chrome Yellow Number 4 on a black background to distance between markers one every 15 miles was the goal , they never lifted a brush. Along with the safety benefits of guided navigation, air marking was variously touted as a job program, a scout merit badge, a commercial welcome mat, and a boon to women in aviation. Phoebe F. A year later, Noyes became the fourth pilot hired to charm public works officials into painting the town.
Decca Navigator System
A tactical air navigation system , commonly referred to by the acronym TACAN , is a navigation system used by military aircraft. It provides the user with bearing and distance slant-range or hypotenuse to a ground or ship-borne station. Aircraft equipped with TACAN avionics can use this system for en route navigation as well as non-precision approaches to landing fields. Depending on the installation, Air-to-Air mode may provide range, closure relative velocity of the other unit , and bearing,  though an air-to-air bearing is noticeably less precise than a ground-to-air bearing. Hoffman Laboratories Div. It operates in the frequency band MHz. Because the rotation of the antenna creates a large portion of the azimuth bearing signal, if the antenna fails, the azimuth component is no longer available and the TACAN downgrades to a DME only mode.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Private Pilot Tutorial 15: Navigation (Part 1 of 4)
Navigation services, search and rescue, fleet, college, jobs and contact information. Incident reporting, safety systems and equipment, and maritime search and rescue service delivery. About the program, compliance, funding, inventory, risk assessment and how to report a problem vessel. Our decommissioned helicopters give engineering students hands-on experience in aircraft maintenance. Follow Coast Guard:. Navigation Regional maps and charts, navigation aids, waterways management and marine services fees. Search and rescue Incident reporting, safety systems and equipment, and maritime search and rescue service delivery. Environmental response Preparing and responding to marine pollution, make a report and international cooperation.
TP 1247 E Aviation - Land Use in the Vicinity of Aerodromes
Расположение глаз в виде такого же равностороннего треугольника не могло быть простым совпадением; даже расположение щупалец и коротких суставчатых конечностей было почти идентичным.
Но в остальном сходство отсутствовало.
Что бы это ни было, оно не повредит. Оно выглядит. заинтересованным. Элвин хотел что-то ответить другу, но внезапно был охвачен никогда ранее не изведанным чувством. По его телу разлилось покалывающее тепло; это длилось лишь несколько секунд, а потом он стал уже не только Элвином. Нечто вошло в его мозг и словно заняло его часть - подобно тому как один круг может частично закрыть собою. Он ощущал также и сознание Хилвара - здесь, рядом, равно захваченное явившимся к ним неведомым существом. Чувство это было скорее странным, чем неприятным, и оно впервые продемонстрировало Элвину, что такое настоящая телепатия - та сила, которая у его народа выродилась настолько, что могла использоваться только для управления Когда Серанис пыталась овладеть его сознанием, Элвин восстал сразу же; но против этого вторжения он не боролся.
Это было бы бесполезно, и к тому же он знал, что это существо в любом случае не враждебно.
Shaping the Future of Flight
Но порт находился за пределами города. Целые эпохи прошли с того времени, когда он оказался укрыт кочующими песками пустыни. Олвин, понятно, мог мечтать о том, что где-то в лабиринте Диаспара все еще может таиться одна из этих летающих машин но, в общем-то, он в это не верил. Представлялось крайне маловероятным, что даже в те дни, когда полеты на маленьких флайерах личного пользования были делом обычным, ими разрешалось пользоваться за пределами города.
На какие-то секунды он забылся в старой, привычной мечте: он вообразил, что небо подвластно ему, что, распростершись, мир лежит под ним, приглашая отправиться туда, куда ему хочется. Это не был мир его времени. Это был утраченный мир Начала -- богатейшая, вся в движении панорама холмов лесов и озер. Он испытал острую зависть к своим неведомым предкам, которые с такой свободой летали над всей землей и которые позволили умереть се красоте.
Эти иссушающие ум мечтания были бесплодны.
Airbus-built CHEOPS satellite successfully launched on Soyuz
Элвин едва слушал. Он смотрел на странный знак, благодаря которому нашел это место - тонкую колонну, на расстоянии третьей части от конца окаймленную горизонтальным кругом. Знак этот выглядел чужим и необычным, и все же Элвин ощущал безмолвную весть, пронесенную сквозь века. Под этими неприкосновенными камнями скрывался ответ по крайней мере на один вопрос. Но вопрос этот мог оставаться открытым: кем бы ни являлись эти существа, они заслужили право Хилвар еле разобрал слова, которые Элвин прошептал на обратном пути.
- Я надеюсь, что они вернулись домой, - сказал. - А сейчас. - спросил Хилвар, когда они снова оказались в космосе. Элвин задумчиво смотрел на экран. - Ты полагаешь, мне следует вернуться.
Show Me the Way to Go Home
Серанис выглядела более обеспокоенной и неуверенной, чем когда-либо, и Элвин вспомнил о выборе, который ему теперь предстоял, и о котором он почти забыл среди волнений последних дней, не желая тратить силы на решение проблем, отложенных на будущее.
Но вот будущее наступило, и он должен решать, какой из двух миров он впредь предпочтет для жизни. Когда Серанис заговорила, голос ее был озабочен, и Элвину внезапно показалось, что в планах, которые Лис строил насчет него, что-то нарушилось.
Они жили все в том же городе, ходили по тем же удивительно неизменным улицам, а между тем число лет, пронесшихся над ними, превысило миллиард.
Чтобы пробиться к выходу из Пещеры Белых Червей, пришлось потратить много часов.
Секунду он пристально глядел на гладкую серую поверхность, затем прикоснулся к пульту, и его взгляд упал на Теперь, когда он знал возможности этого чудесного инструмента, план действий был ясен.
Не было необходимости тратить месяцы и годы, исследуя Диаспар изнутри, комнату за комнатой, коридор за коридором. С этого нового наблюдательного пункта он мог перелететь за пределы города и сразу же увидеть все проходы, ведущие в пустыню и окружающий мир.
Употребление слова исчез означает очень многое, подумалось Олвину. Даже и сейчас Совету не хотелось признавать, что Олвин побывал за пределами Диаспара. Он подумал -- а знают ли эти люди о том, что в городе бывают чужие, и, в общем, усомнился в. Будь это так, они выказали бы куда больше тревоги.