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This document describes inspection and cleaning processes for fiber optic connections. It is important that every fiber connector be inspected and cleaned prior to mating. The procedures in this document describe basic inspection techniques and processes of cleaning for fiber optic cables, bulkheads, and adapters used in fiber optic connections.
Note : This document is intended for use by service personnel, field service technicians, and hardware installers. Clean fiber optic components are a requirement for quality connections between fiber optic equipment.
One of the most basic and important procedures for the maintenance of fiber optic systems is to clean the fiber optic equipment.
Any contamination in the fiber connection can cause failure of the component or failure of the whole system. Even microscopic dust particles can cause a variety of problems for optical connections.
A particle that partially or completely blocks the core generates strong back reflections, which can cause instability in the laser system. Dust particles trapped between two fiber faces can scratch the glass surfaces. Even if a particle is only situated on the cladding or the edge of the endface, it can cause an air gap or misalignment between the fiber cores which significantly degrades the optical signal. A 9-micrometer speck is still too small to see without a microscope, but it can completely block the fiber core.
These contaminants can be more difficult to remove than dust particles. By comparison, a typical human hair is 50 to 75 micrometers in diameter, as much as eight times larger. So, even though dust might not be visible, it is still present in the air and can deposit onto the connector.
In addition to dust, other types of contamination must also be cleaned off the endface. Such materials include:. These contaminants can be more difficult to remove than dust particles and can also cause damage to equipment if not removed. Caution : With the high powered lasers now in use for communications systems, any contaminant can be burned into the fiber endface if it blocks the core while the laser is turned on.
This burn might damage the optical surface enough that it cannot be cleaned. When you clean fiber components, always complete the steps in the procedures carefully. The goal is to eliminate any dust or contamination and to provide a clean environment for the fiber-optic connection. Remember that inspection, cleaning and re-inspection are critical steps which must be done before you make any fiber-optic connection.
Always turn off any laser sources before you inspect fiber connectors, optical components, or bulkheads. Always make sure that the cable is disconnected at both ends or that the card or pluggable receiver is removed from the chassis. Always wear the appropriate safety glasses when required in your area. Be sure that any laser safety glasses meet federal and state regulations and are matched to the lasers used within your environment.
Always store unused protective caps in a resealable container in order to prevent the possibility of the transfer of dust to the fiber. Locate the containers near the connectors for easy access. Never use alcohol or wet cleaning without a way to ensure that it does not leave residue on the endface. It can cause damage to the equipment. Resealable containers should be used to store all cleaning tools, and store endcaps in a separate container. The inside of these containers must be kept very clean and the lid should be kept tightly closed in order to avoid contamination of the contents during fiber connection.
Never allow cleaning alcohol to evaporate slowly off the ferrule as it can leave residual material on the cladding and fiber core. This is extremely difficult to clean off without another wet cleaning and usually more difficult to remove than the original contaminant. Liquid alcohol can also remain in small crevices or cavities where it might re-emerge. This section describes the connector cleaning process. Additional sections provide more detail on specific inspection and cleaning techniques.
If the connector is still dirty, clean it with a wet cleaning technique followed immediately with a dry clean in order to ensure no residue is left on the endface. Note : Wet cleaning is not recommended for bulkheads and receptacles.
Damage to equipment can occur. If the contaminate still cannot be removed, repeat the cleaning procedure until the endface is clean. Note : Never use alcohol or wet cleaning without a way to ensure that it does not leave residue on the endface. It can cause equipment damage. A fiberscope is a customized microscope used in order to inspect optical fiber components. The fiberscope should provide at least x total magnification.
Specific adapters are needed to properly inspect the endface of most connector types, for example: 1. The bulkhead probe is a handheld fiberscope used in order to inspect connectors in a bulkhead, backplane, or receptacle port. It should provide at least x total magnification displayed on a video monitor. Handheld portable monitors are also available.
Specific adapters are needed in order to properly inspect the endface of most connector types. Caution : Read the reminders and warnings before you begin this process. Warning : Invisible laser radiation might be emitted from disconnected fibers or connectors. Do not stare into beams or view directly with optical instruments.
Verify the style of connector you inspect and put the appropriate inspection adapter or probe on your equipment. Insert the fiber connector into the fiberscope adapter, and adjust the focus ring so that you see a clear endface image.
Figure 5 shows a clean single mode connector endface. Tip : See the examples in Appendix B - Sample Images of Contamination Conditions for illustrations of different types of contamination. Cleaning Techniques for Pigtails and Patch Cords. Cleaning Techniques for Bulkheads and Receptacles. Immediately plug the clean connector into the mating clean connector in order to reduce the risk of recontamination.
Improper cleaning can cause damage to the equipment. This section describes dry cleaning techniques with the use of cartridge and pocket style cleaners. Inspect the connector with a fiberscope. See the Connector Inspection Technique section.
For cartridge cleaners, press down and hold the thumb lever. The shutter slides back and exposes a new cleaning area, then go to step 5.
For manual advance cleaners, pull on the cleaning material from the bottom of the device until a new strip appears in the cleaning window, and then go to step 5.
Pull the fiber tip lightly down the exposed cleaning area in the direction of the arrow or from top to bottom. Caution : Do not scrub the fiber against the fabric or clean over the same surface more than once. This can potentially contaminate or damage your connector. Inspect the connector again with the fiberscope. Refer to the Connector Inspection Technique section. Caution : Throw away any used cleaning material, either cards or material cartridges, after use. Caution : Be careful not to contaminate the cleaning area of the wipe with your hands or on a surface during folding.
Caution : Do not scrub the fiber against the wipe. If you do it, it can cause scratches and more contamination. If a dry cleaning procedure does not remove the dirt from the fiber endface, then try the wet cleaning method.
Caution : Improper cleaning can cause damage to the equipment. The primary concern with the use of isopropyl alcohol is that it can be removed completely from the connector or adapter.
Residual liquid alcohol acts as a transport mechanism for loose dirt on the endface. If the alcohol is allowed to evaporate slowly off the ferrule, it can leave residual material on the cladding and fiber core.
Liquid alcohol can also remain in small crevices or cavities where it can re-emerge during fiber connection. Caution : On female multifiber connectors, ensure that no alcohol gets into the guide pin holes. The alcohol might come out during mating and contaminate your connection. Caution : Do not use wet cleaning on E or F connectors because the connector can trap the alcohol and recontaminate the connector. Fold the wipe into a square, about 4 to 8 layers thick. See Figure Be sure that a portion of the wipe remains dry.
Lightly wipe the ferrule tip in the alcohol moistened portion of the wipe with a figure 8 motion. Immediately repeat the figure 8 wiping action on the dry section of wipe to remove any residual alcohol. See Caution. Caution : Do not scrub the fiber against the wipe, doing so can cause scratches. Receptacles refer to packaged devices with optical ports. Many receptacle devices use lens based systems which are less sensitive to contamination as opposed to fiber, but can be damaged if cleaned improperly.
If you inspect a receptacle device and are not able to focus on the endface cladding, then you have a lensed device and should not attempt to clean it. See Figure 14 and Figure 15 for sample images of the endface core and cladding. Cisco has found that the use of swabs for cleaning is not always very effective even for experienced operators. It might be better to leave an optical port alone unless signal effecting contamination is observed blocking the core.
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This document describes inspection and cleaning processes for fiber optic connections. It is important that every fiber connector be inspected and cleaned prior to mating. The procedures in this document describe basic inspection techniques and processes of cleaning for fiber optic cables, bulkheads, and adapters used in fiber optic connections. Note : This document is intended for use by service personnel, field service technicians, and hardware installers. Clean fiber optic components are a requirement for quality connections between fiber optic equipment.
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PCE Instruments PCE is an international supplier of test instruments, tools and equipment for measuring, weighing and control systems. Founded by German engineers nearly two decades ago, PCE offers more than test instruments with applications in industrial engineering and process control, manufacturing quality assurance, scientific research, trade industries and beyond. In addition, PCE can provide custom test instruments on demand.
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Getting to know the principles of stray light reduction is key to getting accurate measurements while working with your optical device. If you use any of these optical instruments for important measurements or tests, get prepared to find out how to reduce stray light. Optical instruments play a crucial role in technological enhancements, not only in the field of optics but in many others as well, from medicine to astronomy. The precision of these instruments is directly related to the accuracy of test results, measurements and the decisions made based upon them.
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