Laser technology, definition, applications, and challenges. Modern Physics, Spring For our final review in modern physics course, we had to choose between some topics regarding the course material, therefore, I selected following initial questions to work on my report. I will start by giving my opinion about laser technology, and suggest the applications of such technologies based on the devices and applications I encountered and briefly describe my beliefs about the invention of such practical technology. In my opinion, the laser technology comes from focusing photons of lights on a single spot and such approach makes it more powerful than a beam of light. Therefore, I assume lasers and LEDs must have a very similar structure for that reason.
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Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Research in optics has a long and distinguished history, dating back even further than the work of Galileo and Newton. In recent decades, optics research has blossomed with the invention of the laser, an increasing interaction between optics and electronics, the development of new materials with unique optical properties, and other extraordinary advances.
The first part of this chapter highlights some examples of research areas that hold special promise for further discoveries. This is a time of great excitement for all optics researchers, whether in universities, industry, or government laboratories. The second part of the chapter discusses the state of optics education. Combining this report's discussion of research and education issues in a single chapter is only appropriate.
The creation of research universities, which combine research and education endeavors to create a synergy between the discovery of knowledge and the education of students, has been one of the key institutional developments of the past century for research and education in optics as in other fields.
Both basic and applied research are motivated by a deeply rooted human instinct: the desire to know and understand nature. Over hundreds of years, humans have gradually learned to explore nature in a systematic way known as the scientific method—the use of experiments and observations, guided initially by intuition and hypothesis and later by theory. The resulting understanding of nature is the hallmark of the scientific process. Roger Bacon, a multitalented thirteenth-century scientist and philosopher whose work in optics included a description of a telescope.
Applied research, which is often indistinguishable from basic research, is motivated by the need to understand how as well as the need to understand why. Louis Victor de Broglie, recipient of the Nobel Prize in physics, explained that ''the two aspects of science [pure and applied] correspond to the two principal activities of man: thought and action.
They are inseparable if human science is to progress as a whole and fulfill with increasing success its high and twofold task. The most important discoveries often arise at boundaries between established fields—in the case of the laser, at the interface between physics and electrical engineering. The ultimate impact of research is rarely predictable.
For example, as the earlier chapters of this report demonstrate repeatedly, the invention of the laser has had a major economic and social impact, with remarkable applications in areas that range from communications to the environment to medicine. Yet Arthur Schawlow, the laser's coinventor, once commented that "if I had set out to invent a way to improve eye surgery, I certainly would not have invented the laser.
Development, often guided by understanding gained through basic and applied research, is motivated by a need to make something that works and is of commercial value.
However, development—especially the development of commercial products—usually requires a much larger financial investment than most research. Such resources are often unavailable at universities; therefore, in the United States, development activities are generally concentrated in the commercial sector. The exception is in certain areas of special interest to the nation, such as defense, space, and the environment. Development often involves multiple scientific and engineering disciplines, multiple approaches to problem solving, and the unique techniques and resources of large public and private organizations.
Education at all levels is critical to the future of optics. Optics is a natural tool for a visual approach to the education of K students in many aspects of science and mathematics. Post-high school education, including 2-year associate and 4-year degree programs, is important for meeting the future needs of this rapidly growing area of. There is a need for graduate education, as discussed below, as well as special courses of study in optical engineering provided by universities with an historical focus on optics.
Jobs are available for those trained in optics. It is often asked whether optics constitutes a separate discipline, and this question requires critical attention.
Optics is certainly recognized as an integrated field of knowledge. Its teaching extends across disciplinary boundaries and includes science departments, engineering departments, and departments in schools of medicine. Because the field of optics is not sharply defined by a job title or membership in a single professional society, it can be difficult to develop a quantitative picture of the size and breadth of the optics research community.
One indicator is participation in professional conferences. About 6, scientists and engineers usually attend the annual U.
The Optical Fiber Conference attracts more than 7, participants each year. Altogether, the field involves at least 30, active scientists and engineers worldwide, and many areas of the optics industry are growing rapidly. Another indicator of the strength and growth of the field is its impact on the economy.
Optoelectronics is now a major component of U. The rate of formation of optics-related businesses has grown rapidly during the s. Although this study focused on a narrow segment of the field of optical science and did not address the engineering aspects, it nevertheless found that this field is ripe for breakthroughs, growing rapidly, and having an impact on sciences beyond optics, including biology, chemistry, and medicine.
Today, the United States invests approximately 0. This is the lowest rate of such investment by any major industrialized country. As a result of a workshop in May , 1 the National Science Foundation NSF in announced a multidisciplinary research initiative in optical science and engineering. The program attracted more than pre-proposals and 70 full proposals.
Ultimately only. These numbers indicate both the vitality and the competitive nature of optics research and the strong interest nationwide in the opportunities it presents. In recent years an important feature of optics research has been the growing interaction between optical physics and electrical engineering.
The first hint of this link was the discovery by Heinrich Hertz in that radio waves and light waves are described by the same theory of electromagnetism and are distinguished only by their different frequencies. Marconi soon demonstrated the transmission of information by pulsed radio waves, and by the s there were more than 30 million radios in use in the United States alone. From the development of electrical devices for radio and other applications came a new research discipline, electrical engineering.
In this same period, physicists were exploring newly discovered properties of light. Max Planck found that light is quantized in units called photons.
Einstein used this discovery to explain the emission and absorption of light quanta by atoms and predicted that it should be possible to use light to stimulate an atom to emit more light.
Other physicists—most of them engaged in basic research with little thought about potential applications—explored electrical discharges, the properties of atoms in solids, the properties of semiconductors, and atomic and molecular spectroscopy. The two communities—physicists, with their emphasis on quantum mechanics and the basic understanding of nature, and electrical engineers, with their understanding of electronic circuits and wave propagation—were brought together in by the invention and demonstration of the laser named for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation.
Today, work at the interface of physics and electrical engineering is a key element of optics research, producing such important developments as the semiconductor diode laser. Optics is a multidisciplinary field that cuts across many of the traditional academic disciplines. The funding of initiatives in such crosscutting areas is often hindered by the structure and organization of the federal agencies that support research and development.
In an effort to overcome these difficulties, the government has created the National Science and Technology Council NSTC and charged it with addressing the following goals: to maintain leadership across the frontiers of scientific knowledge; to enhance connections between fundamental research and national goals; to stimulate partnerships that promote investments in fundamental science and engineering and in the effective use of physical, human, and financial resources; to produce the finest scientists and engineers for the twenty-first century; and to raise the scientific and technology literacy of all Americans.
These goals serve as guideposts for NSTC in making recommendations and setting priorities for investment in new crosscutting research and development.
NSTC works to identify important crosscutting science and technology programs and works with multiple agencies to fund new initiatives. As demonstrated throughout this report, the broad area of optics is multidisciplinary and growing rapidly. It is ripe for support as a crosscutting initiative at a level comparable to the earlier investment made in high-performance computing and communications.
Multiple government agencies should form a working group to collaborate in the support of optics, in a crosscutting initiative similar to the earlier one for high-performance computing and communications systems. NSF should develop an agency-wide, separately funded initiative to support multidisciplinary research and education in optics.
The Department of Commerce should explicitly recognize optics as an integrated area of knowledge, technology, and industry and should structure its job and patent databases accordingly. Opportunities for research in optics have the potential for significant benefit to society in the next decade. Many new developments, with a high leverage for return on the investment of increasingly scarce research dollars, have been identified.
However, research by its nature returns benefits on a portfolio of many possible avenues of investigation. A few examples of the many areas of research in optics that show promise and offer high leverage for future return are presented in this section.
It is impossible to cover all areas of research in the extensive and multidisciplinary areas of optics. A more inclusive set of research opportunities in optics is presented each year at large annual meetings such as CLEO. Areas of optics research selected for discussion include control of atoms by light, fundamental quantum limits of measurements, and light in biology.
Recent advances in optical microscopy are highlighted. Femtosecond laser technology and its application to ultrafast physics, chemistry, and engineering is identified as a particularly promising opportunity. Advanced laser sources and frequency conversion of lasers using nonlinear optical devices offer significant potential for applications in semiconductor processing, reprographics, and image display.
Semiconductor lasers and solid-state lasers are promising sources of coherent optical radiation at ever-decreasing cost. Finally, progress in the generation of coherent radiation progressed from radio frequencies in to microwave frequencies in and to optical frequencies in We are now entering the era of extreme ultraviolet UV and, in the future, coherent x-ray sources with applications that extend from lithography to advanced x-ray imaging.
Light continues to be the principal method of probing matter. Powerful spectroscopic techniques continue to be developed as light sources extend into new regimes of the electromagnetic spectrum and as optical sources with extremely short pulses such as femtosecond lasers, synchrotron sources, and free electron lasers become more widely used.
In the past decade, light has begun to be used to detect and to control matter, particularly the position and velocity of atoms, molecules, and small particles.
Currently, atoms in the gas phase can be laser-cooled to microkelvin temperatures where their velocities are on the order of a centimeter per second. Once cold, atoms can be manipulated with relative ease. Atoms tossed upwards in a ballistic trajectory as in a fountain form the basis of a new generation of atomic clocks.
Prototype atomic fountain clocks already have short-term stability an order of magnitude better than atomic clocks based on thermal beams of atoms. Alternatively, ions trapped in magnetic and electric fields could lead to atomic clocks based on optical transitions in which the stability would be improved another thousandfold.
Since ion clocks will have a low signal-to-noise ratio, they will need stable "flywheel" frequency references, such as ultrastable hydrogen masers or cryogenic microwave oscillators, to take full advantage of this potential for superior accuracy. Atom traps have also been used to store radioactive isotopes for nuclear physics studies and for tests of fundamental symmetries of nature such as parity and time.
Atom optics has emerged as a new field. Atom lenses were used to deposit 0. These structures can be written over large areas and may be used to pattern a surface for high-density optical storage. One promising approach uses the optically guided atoms to react chemically with a resist with better than 0. Atom beam splitters, mirrors, and diffraction gratings have been used to construct atom interferometers.
Atom interferometers have already proven to be sensitive accelerometers and gyroscopes. In , Einstein made a dramatic prediction. Examples of Bose condensation media include superfluid helium, paired electrons in a superconductor, and paired atoms in superfluid 3 He.
In recent years, Federal agencies have become increasingly interested in using digital information technologies to store large amounts of information economically and efficiently. This is particularly true of programs designed to provide Federal information to citizens, since a corresponding reduction in the creation of paper records could potentially reduce costs and improve the delivery of services to the public. However, agencies need to ensure that whatever technologies they employ to store information are capable of retrieving that information for as long as it is needed. In , the National Archives and Records Administration NARA , in conjunction with the National Association of Government Archives and Records Administrators, conducted a study of digital imaging and optical media storage technologies at the State and local government levels. A project team from NARA's Technology Research Staff reviewed fifteen Federal digital imaging and optical digital data disk storage applications and interviewed a number of experts in the field.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Research in optics has a long and distinguished history, dating back even further than the work of Galileo and Newton. In recent decades, optics research has blossomed with the invention of the laser, an increasing interaction between optics and electronics, the development of new materials with unique optical properties, and other extraordinary advances. The first part of this chapter highlights some examples of research areas that hold special promise for further discoveries.
Digital-Imaging and Optical Digital Data Disk Storage Systems
With a 30 percent annual growth rate, fiber optics is one of today's hottest industries. And there appears to be no end in sight. Construction crews are working feverishly to install thousands of miles of optical fiber cable under oceans, city streets and farm fields and alongside highways, railroad tracks and pipelines. Last year, long-distance telecommunication carriers deployed 11 million kilometers of fiber in North America, according to KMI Corp. Newport, RI. Installing long-distance optical fiber cable is one thing.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: How to Wash and Store your Fruits and Vegetables
Ultrafast laser processing of materials: from science to industry
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A natural image captured with a camera, telescope, microscope, or other type of optical instrument displays a continuously varying array of shades and color tones. Photographs made with film, or video images produced by a vidicon camera tube, are a subset of all possible images and contain a wide spectrum of intensities, ranging from dark to light, and a spectrum of colors that can include just about any imaginable hue and saturation level. Images of this type are referred to as continuous-tone because the various tonal shades and hues blend together without disruption to generate a faithful reproduction of the original scene. Continuous-tone images are produced by analog optical and electronic devices, which accurately record image data by several methods, such as a sequence of electrical signal fluctuations or changes in the chemical nature of a film emulsion that vary continuously over all dimensions of the image. In order for a continuous-tone or analog image to be processed or displayed by a computer, it must first be converted into a computer-readable form or digital format. This process applies to all images, regardless the origin and complexity, and whether they exist as black and white grayscale or full color. Because grayscale images are somewhat easier to explain, they will serve as a primary model in many of the following discussions. To convert a continuous-tone image into a digital format, the analog image is divided into individual brightness values through two operational processes that are termed sampling and quantization , as illustrated in Figure 1.
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Digital-Imaging and Optical Digital Data Disk Storage Systems
Sign In View Cart 0 Help. Share Email Print. Volume Details. Volume Number: Date Published: 8 November Table of Contents. The explosive growth of information worldwide emerges as a great challenge for the currently-available big data center platform and compels the development of novel methods and storage devices. Far-field super-resolution techniques have shown the potential to achieve nanoscale three-dimensional optical data storage resulting in a single-disc capacity towards petabytes. In particular, super-resolution photoinduction-inhibited nanolithography SPIN has been used to write features with size of 9 nm, while stimulated emission depletion STED microscopy is suitable for super-resolution optical data reading. However, the combination of SPIN and STED microscopy for super-resolution optical data storage is presently limited by the high intensity required for the inhibition beam, which results in high energy consumption and damage of the data bits, and the lack of an optically-activatable material for data read-out after SPIN.
Optics Software. Download 'Mirrors and Lenses'- Lens focal length , the Lens and Mirror software of Genius maker, to solve and visualise problems of optical physics pertaining to plain glass, convex lens, concave lens, plain mirror, convex mirror and concave mirror. You'll find that the mouse if perfect for first person shooters, and also works great with most other kinds of games.
Allotropes Some elements exist in several different structural forms, called allotropes. Each allotrope has different physical properties. For more information on the Visual Elements image see the Uses and properties section below.
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