While buildup in a pipeline can cause transmittal slows or even plugging of the pipeline, cracks or flaws in the line can be disastrous. A form of flow assurance for oil and gas pipelines and flowlines, pipeline pigging ensures the line is running smoothly. The maintenance tool, pipeline pigs are introduced into the line via a pig trap, which includes a launcher and receiver. Without interrupting flow, the pig is then forced through it by product flow, or it can be towed by another device or cable. Usually cylindrical or spherical, pigs sweep the line by scraping the sides of the pipeline and pushing debris ahead.
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Conduits to transfer materials from the seafloor to production and drilling facilities atop the water's surface, as well as from the facility to the seafloor, subsea risers are a type of pipeline developed for this type of vertical transportation. Similar to pipelines or flowlines, risers transport produced hydrocarbons, as well as production materials, such as injection fluids, control fluids and gas lift. Usually insulated to withstand seafloor temperatures, risers can be either rigid or flexible.
There are a number of types of risers, including attached risers, pull tube risers, steel catenary risers, top-tensioned risers, riser towers and flexible riser configurations, as well as drilling risers. The first type of riser to be developed, attached risers are deployed on fixed platforms, compliant towers and concrete gravity structures. Attached risers are clamped to the side of the fixed facilities, connecting the seabed to the production facility above. Usually fabricated in sections, the riser section closest to the seafloor is joined with a flowline or export pipeline, and clamped to the side of the facility.
The next sections rise up the side of the facility, until the top riser section is joined with the processing equipment atop the facility. Also used on fixed structures, pull tube risers are pipelines or flowlines that are threaded up the center of the facility. For pull tube risers, a pull tube with a diameter wider than the riser is preinstalled on the facility.
Then, a wire rope is attached to a pipeline or flowline on the seafloor. The line is then pulled through the pull tube to the topsides, bringing the pipe along with it. Building on the catenary equation that has helped to create bridges across the world, steel catenary risers use this curve theory, as well. Used to connect the seafloor to production facilities above, as well as connect two floating production platforms, steel catenary risers are common on TLPs, FPSOs and spars, as well as fixed structures, compliant towers and gravity structures.
While this curved riser can withstand some motion, excessive movement can cause problems. Used on TLPs and spars, top-tensioned risers are a completely vertical riser system that terminates directly below the facility. Although moored, these floating facilities are able to move laterally with the wind and waves. Because the rigid risers are also fixed to the seafloor, vertical displacement occurs between the top of the riser and its connection point on the facility.
There are two solutions for this issue. A motion compensator can be included in the top-tensioning riser system that keeps constant tension on the riser by expanding and contracting with the movements of the facility.
Also, buoyancy cans, can be deployed around the outside of the riser to keep it afloat. Then the top of the rigid vertical top-tensioned riser is connected to the facility by flexible pipe, which is better able to accommodate the movements of the facility. First used offshore Angola at Total's Girassol project, riser towers were built to lift the risers the considerable height to reach the FPSO on the water's surface.
Ideal for ultra-deepwater environments, this riser design incorporates a steel column tower that reaches almost to the surface of the water, and this tower is topped with a massive buoyancy tank. The risers are located inside the tower, spanning the distance from the seafloor to the top of the tower and the buoyancy tanks. The buoyancy of the tanks keeps the risers tensioned in place. Flexible risers are then connected to the vertical risers and ultimately to the facility above.
A hybrid that can accommodate a number of different situations, flexible risers can withstand both vertical and horizontal movement, making them ideal for use with floating facilities. This flexible pipe was originally used to connect production equipment aboard a floating facility to production and export risers, but now it is found as a primary riser solution as well. There are a number of configurations for flexible risers, including the steep S and lazy S that utilize anchored buoyancy modules, as well as the steep wave and lazy wave that incorporates buoyancy modules.
Connected to the subsea BOP stack at the bottom and the rig at the top, drilling risers temporarily connect the wellbore to the surface to ensure drilling fluids to not leak into the water. Multiple Riser Configurations Source: www.
Top-Tensioned Risers Source: www. Hybrid Riser System Source: www. How Does Core Analysis Work? How Does Fishing Work? How Do Iron Roughnecks Work? More How it Works Articles. NACE International With programs developed, peer reviewed, and taught by industry experts, NACE provides corrosion control training and certification to help students launch a career, broaden their expertise, and provide greater industry recognition and credibility.
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The business of extracting and transporting oil and gas is filled with challenges. To stay competitive, companies in this industry must continually strive to produce crude oil and refined products at a lower cost. They are also constantly looking to enhance and extend the value of their existing assets while also searching for new oil and gas reserves. And environmental standards are becoming increasingly stringent, requiring transparency in operations and tighter controls on production and distribution. To overcome these challenges, oil and gas companies worldwide are thinking creatively once again.
Features & Benefits of Pipeline Transportation – Why Pipelines Are Needed
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OISD Standards List
IIoT has provided increased ability to connect, measure and analyze variety of behavioral statistics for midstream pipeline operations. It establishes a framework to securely connect and collect data from diverse remote assets, delivering information as well as channeling information to business applications. It is the inter-networking of physical devices, vehicles, buildings and other items — embedded with electronics, software, sensors, actuators, and network connectivity that enables these objects to collect and exchange data. As the technology and deployment of the IoT progressed on to pipelines it provided increased ability to connect, measure and analyze an ever-increasing variety of behavioral statistics.
Oil pipelines are steel or polyethylene tubes through which large quantities of crude and refined petroleum derivatives can be channeled. Why do we need pipelines rather than alternative forms of transporting oil and gas derivatives? This article will highlight the features of pipeline transport and consider the benefits derived from their use. The applications of pipelines span domestic, commercial and industrial purposes. Pipelines can be used to carry natural gas to homes domestic , jet fuel to airports commercial , and crude oil to refineries industrial. The efficient transport of oil from production wells to oil refineries would be impossible without the use of an elaborate network of pipelines. This important midstream oil and gas component is also critical to the transfer of finished petroleum products to end-users or dependent industries.
ABS Rules, Guides and Guidance Notes
Content of PetroWiki is intended for personal use only and to supplement, not replace, engineering judgment. SPE disclaims any and all liability for your use of such content. More information. The pipeline system that conveys the individual-well production or that of a group of wells from a central facility to a central system or terminal location is a gathering pipeline.
Oil and gas produced from a field need to be transported to customers. On many oil fields, oil is loaded directly on to tankers buoy-loading. In other cases, oil and gas are transported by pipeline to onshore facilities. Oil, wet gas and liquefied natural gas LNG are transferred to ships at onshore facilities, while dry gas is moved by pipeline to the UK and continental Europe. In contrast to the oil and gas fields on the Norwegian shelf, where the companies themselves are responsible for the operations, the gas pipeline system is more directly controlled by the authorities. An important consideration for the authorities is to ensure equal access to capacity in the system on the basis of companies' needs. Furthermore, the tariffs payable for access to the infrastructure must be reasonable. Another important consideration is to ensure that the Norwegian gas transport system operates efficiently, and that the system is developed to meet future needs. The oil transport system is not as closely regulated as the gas transport infrastructure, mainly because transport is a less important part of the value chain for oil. Download as image PNG.
Pipelines in Canada
Biofouling is one of the main problems faced by every type of ship at the sea. Marine growth such as barnacles and mussels have been the reason for problems such as decreased ship efficiency, corrosion etc. Biofouling not only sticks to the external surface of the ships but also gets into the water intakes and sticks to the surface of the pipes leading to problems such as blockage and corrosion. Though mechanical removing tools can be used to get rid of such marine growth, this is not always possible. For this reason, different types of marine growth prevent systems are used on board ships, along with anti-fouling paints. The electrolytic system consists of pairs of anodes, mostly copper and aluminum or iron. The anodes are mounted in the sea chest or the strainer. DC current is passed through the copper anodes, which produce ions that are carried with the seawater in the whole piping network. These copper ions in the seawater prevent marine organisms from settling down and multiplying on the surface of the pipes.
Digitalisation and Energy
Ship-related operational discharges of oil include the discharge of bilge water from machinery spaces, fuel oil sludge, and oily ballast water from fuel tanks. Also other commercial vessels than tankers contribute operational discharges of oil from machinery spaces to the sea. Cargo-related operational discharges from tankers include the discharge of tank-washing residues and oily ballast water. Before international regulations were introduced to prevent oil pollution from ships, the normal practice for oil tankers was to wash out the cargo tanks with water and then pump the resulting mixture of oil and water into the sea. Also, oil cargo or fuel tanks were used for ballast water and, consequently, oil was discharged into the sea when tankers flushed out the oil-contaminated ballast water to replace it with new oil. In a sea area with Special Area status under the international MARPOL Convention Annex I so far, only the Mediterranean Sea area, the Baltic Sea area, the Red Sea area, the Gulf of Aden area, the Antarctic area, and the North West European waters , it is altogether forbidden for oil tankers to discharge oil, oily sludge and oil-contaminated residues from tank washing, or heavily oil-contaminated ballast water. All oily wastes mixtures must be kept on board and stored in so-called slop tanks until the vessel reaches a reception facility in port. Furthermore, it is not allowed to discharge bilge water unless it has been properly cleaned and contains no more than 15 mg of oil per litre. Most sea areas are not Special Areas, but in accordance with international regulations under MARPOL, attempts are nevertheless made to make large oil tankers and product carriers have equipment for crude oil washing and segregated ballast tanks.
Machine Learning applications are becoming popular in our industry, however the process for developing, deploying, and continuously improving them is more complex compared to more traditional software, such as a web service or a mobile application. They are subject to change in three axis: the code itself, the model, and the data. Their behaviour is often complex and hard to predict, and they are harder to test, harder to explain, and harder to improve. I am a principal consultant at ThoughtWorks with experience in many areas of architecture and engineering: software, data, infrastructure, and machine learning.
Conduits to transfer materials from the seafloor to production and drilling facilities atop the water's surface, as well as from the facility to the seafloor, subsea risers are a type of pipeline developed for this type of vertical transportation. Similar to pipelines or flowlines, risers transport produced hydrocarbons, as well as production materials, such as injection fluids, control fluids and gas lift. Usually insulated to withstand seafloor temperatures, risers can be either rigid or flexible. There are a number of types of risers, including attached risers, pull tube risers, steel catenary risers, top-tensioned risers, riser towers and flexible riser configurations, as well as drilling risers.
Олвин оторвался от решетки и принялся растираться, чтобы восстановить кровообращение в озябших руках и ногах. Впереди, в том, дальнем коице туннеля, свет, струившийся из Диаспара, был настолько нестерпим, что на мгновение пришлось отвести .
Покажи дорогу, ведущую из города, любому человеку в Диаспаре - дорогу, которая может выглядеть точно так же, как находящаяся сейчас перед нами - и он не сможет пройти по. Он вернется обратно, как вернулся бы ты, если б начал идти по доске между башнями.